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周玄德,郭华东,孜比布拉.司马义.城市扩张过程中不透水面空间格局演变及其对地表温度的影响——以乌鲁木齐市为例.生态学报,2018,(20).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201711122022  
城市扩张过程中不透水面空间格局演变及其对地表温度的影响——以乌鲁木齐市为例
Spatial pattern evolution of impervious surfaces and its influence on surface temperature in the process of urban expansion - a case study of Urumqi
投稿时间:2017-11-12  修订日期:2018-04-28
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201711122022
关键词不透水面覆盖  景观  地表温度  变量  乌鲁木齐
Key Wordsimpervious surface coverage  landscape  surface temperature  variable  Urumqi
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(41661036);国家自然科学基金项目(U1603241);新疆自治区研究生科研创新项目(XJGRI2014020)
作者单位E-mail
周玄德 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院 zxd850706@163.com 
郭华东 中国科学院对地观测与数字地球科学中心数字地球重点实验室  
孜比布拉.司马义 新疆大学资源与环境科学学院  
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摘要:
伴随着城市热岛问题的日益显现,关于不透水面与地表温度的关系研究成为热点。在遥感技术的支持下,以乌鲁木齐市主城区为研究对象,从不透水面出发,分别对不透水面类型、变化强度进行研究,探讨不透水面的时空变化特征。同时引入景观生态学理论,分析不透水面景观类型的空间格局及规律。然后以反演的地表温度为基础,分析了不透水面相关变量与地表温度的关系。结论如下:(1)研究区不透水面指数主要集中在0.3—0.7之间,占总面积的90%以上;(2)2000年以来,15.89%的区域不透水面指数连年下降,分布在主城区,20.07%的区域不透水面指数连年上升,分布在城市的郊区,增长区域的幅度主要集中在10%以下;(3)不透水面的景观类型多样性减弱,以中、高覆盖区为主,其中高覆盖区的聚集指数最高,高达87.71,不透水面类型斑块形状由复杂向规则化推移;(4)研究区地表温度,增温明显,2000年地表温度均值25.94℃,2016年地表温度的平均值高达35.51℃;(5)不透水面对地表温度影响,存在阶段性、正负相关的交替性特征,整体表现为“M”形状;(6)不透水面类型面积百分比、不透水面类型景观指数对地表温度的影响相对复杂、差异明显,不能从单一的不透水面覆盖分析对地表温度的影响。不透水面是构成地表升温的重要因素,还需要从不透水面斑块数量、分布格局、材质、地形及周围环境等因素综合研究,才能够更加准确的刻画不透水面与地表温度的关系。
Abstract:
As the problem of urban heat islands has increased, the relationship between the imperviousness of a surface and surface temperature has become a topic of interest. In this study, by using the remote sensing technology, the main urban area of Urumqi was studied for the degree of surface coverage, the surface type, the intensity of the change, and the characteristics of the space-time variation of the impervious surface. Simultaneously, the theory of landscape ecology was introduced to analyze the spatial distribution pattern and the regularity of the impervious surface. Then, based on the surface temperature of the inversion, the relationship between the impervious surface and the surface temperature was analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn: (1) The impervious surface index in the study area was mainly between 0.3–0.7 and 90% of the total area. (2) Since 2000, the index of 15.89% in the main urban area decreased each year; 20.07% of the regional impermeable surface index increased each year with the growth area mainly concentrated in less than 10%; (3) The diversity of the landscape type of the impervious surface was reduced; the medium and high coverage areas were predominant, among which the aggregation index of the high coverage area was the highest, reaching 87.71, and the shape of the impermeable surface type changed from complex to regular; (4) The surface temperature of the study area was obviously increased. In 2000, the average surface temperature was 25.94 ℃ and the average surface temperature in 2016 reached 35.51 ℃; (5) Impervious surface coverage on the surface temperature showed positive and negative correlation of the alternating features and an overall performance in an “M” shape; (6) The percentage of impermeable surface type to the influence of landscape index on surface temperature was relatively complex and had a clear effect, and the influence of surface water temperature cannot be analyzed from a single impermeable surface coverage. An impervious surface is an important factor that contributes to the surface temperature and it is necessary to examine the relationship between impervious surfaces and the surface temperature more accurately from a comprehensive study of the number, distribution pattern, material, terrain, and surrounding environment of impervious surfaces.
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