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贾美玉,张金屯.五台山林线过渡带华北落叶松格局过程和尺度分析.生态学报,2018,(20).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201711272121  
五台山林线过渡带华北落叶松格局过程和尺度分析
Spatial pattern and process of Larix principis-rupprechtii under different scales in timberline ecotone in the south platform of Mount Wutai
投稿时间:2017-11-27  修订日期:2018-04-26
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201711272121
关键词华北落叶松  随机标签模型  空间异质性过程模型  死亡率  负密度制约
Key WordsLarix principis-rupprechtii  Random Labeling  Heterogeneous Poisson process  death rate  negative density dependence
基金项目国家自然基金 31170494 资助
作者单位E-mail
贾美玉 北京师范大学 meiyu.jia@163.com 
张金屯 北京师范大学 zhangjt@bnu.edu.cn 
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摘要:
林线过渡带作为气候变化的预警区,有很重要的研究意义,乔木的种群格局对其群落内灌木和草本格局影响很大,因此研究林线过渡带生境内乔木的格局是许多学者关注的焦点。选取五台山林线内占绝对分布优势的华北落叶松为研究对象,设置50m×50m样地,对其胸径和位置信息进行调查,利用点格局方法和CSR(完全空间随机模型)、HP(空间异质性过程模型)、RL(随机标签模型)对华北落叶松的活立木和枯立木的格局过程进行0-25m尺度上的分析,结果发现:活的华北落叶松平均胸径在11.54cm,死的华北落叶松平均胸径是8.27cm,这个对于30年以上华北落叶松来说胸径值偏小,其生长慢的特点是和林线这个生境特点相适应的。华北落叶松枯立木的聚块很大,在0-15m上都是聚集分布;活立木聚块小出现在0-3m、和21m上。空间异质性过程模型模拟的格局与活立木实际格局差异检验不显著,说明空间异质性可以很好解释活立木格局的成因。随机标签模型模拟结果表明现有活立木和枯立木只在21m附近出现负相关,主要是负密度制约效应是导致的华北落叶松死亡的主要原因,而且对幼苗到幼树的影响最大。同时推测灌木和华北落叶松幼苗和幼树的种间相关作用与其死亡也有一定关系。
Abstract:
Timberline ecotone as an early-warning region is important in climate change study. Tree pattern has sound effect on shrub and herbage, hence, research on tree pattern in timberline ecotone attracts many scholar’s attention. Larix principis-rupprechtii with definite dominance in south platform of Wutai Mountain was selected as research target, and 50m×50m sampling plot was set up and diameter at breast height (DBH) and location of trees were measured and recorded. Point pattern method and null models of CSR、HP、RL were adopted to analyze pattern and process of dead and survival individuals of Larix principis-rupprechtii on 0-25m scales. According to DBH statistics result, average DBH of survival tree was 11.54cm, and the dead one was 8.27cm. Reference to tree growth rate, the value of DBH was smaller than regular one, and the slow growth was resulted from adaption to timberline ecotone. Result as follow: Dead tree had bigger cluster, aggregation on 0-15m scales, survival tree aggregated on <3m and 21m. The difference of HP simulation pattern from the observed pattern for survival tree was not significant, which meant that spatial heterogeneous explained the survival tree pattern well. RL simulation result showed that survival tree had negative correlation with dead one near 21m, mortality caused by negative density dependence, especially for sapling trees. Otherwise, inter-specific relation between shrubs and sapling trees had effect on tree’s death.
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