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黄治昊,周 鑫,张孝然,蒲真,崔国发,邢韶华.我国大陆黄檗潜在分布区及分布适宜性评价.生态学报,2018,(20).http://dx.doi.org/10.5846/stxb201711071997  
我国大陆黄檗潜在分布区及分布适宜性评价
Potential distribution areas and its suitability assessment for Amur corktree in the mainland of China
投稿时间:2017-11-07  修订日期:2018-05-05
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201711071997
关键词黄檗  Maxent模型  环境因素  潜在分布区  空间分析
Key WordsAmur corktree  Maxent model  Environment factors  Potential distribution areas  special analysis
基金项目中央高校基本科研业务费专项资金资助(项目编号2015ZCQ-BH-02)
作者单位E-mail
黄治昊 北京林业大学自然保护区学院 191650127@qq.com 
周 鑫 北京林业大学自然保护区学院  
张孝然 北京林业大学自然保护区学院  
蒲真 北京林业大学自然保护区学院  
崔国发 北京林业大学自然保护区学院  
邢韶华 北京林业大学自然保护区学院 steelboy78@163.com 
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摘要:
【目的】黄檗为我国国家二级重点保护野生植物,多散生于阔叶林中,数量稀少,近年来,无论是从国家层面,还是地方政府层面都采取了一系列保护措施,人为破坏大大减少,然而其种群数量仍没有显著增加,本文拟从生态学的角度分析我国黄檗的潜在分布区,并开展适宜性评价,为我国野生黄檗种群的就地保护和迁地保护提供技术支撑。【方法】通过实地调查和文献资料整理,获得69个包括准确经纬度信息的分布点,同时在世界气候数据库(World-Clim)中下载中国大陆的3个地形变量(alt、slo、asp),5个土壤变量(grav、pH、radi、rub、oc)和19 个生物气候变量(bio1-bio19),利用多重共线性分析来检验环境因子之间的相关性,剔除出部分相关性高的环境因子,最终得到包括6个气候变量(bio1、bio3、bio4、bio12、bio15、prec1)、3个地形变量( alt、asp、slo) 及5个土壤变量(grav、pH、radi、rub、oc)的14个环境因子作为环境变量,进而应用最大熵模型(MaxEnt)和地理信息系统(GIS)的空间分析功能,预测了黄檗在我国的潜在分布区,并评价分布区的适宜等级;分析了影响黄檗分布和适生性的关键因子及其适生区间。【结果】1) 黄檗潜在分布区主要集中在我国东北地区和京津冀大部分区域,以及河南北部、内蒙古东南部等区域,黄檗潜在分布区总面积为117.51万km2,占全国总面积的12.27%,其中高度适宜分布区面积为189400km2,占全国总面积的1.97%,主要包括黑龙江中东部,吉林大部分区域,辽宁东南部和北京大部分区域。2) 温度季节性变化的标准差(35.7%)、年均降水量(28%)、坡度(6.5%)、年均温(6.7%)和有机碳含量(5.8%)是影响黄檗分布的5个最主要的环境因子,总的贡献率为82.7%。温度季节性变化标准差在14000-16000范围内,年均降水量在600mm-800mm范围内,坡度在2-8°范围内,年均温在1-7℃范围内,土壤有机碳含量在25-65g/kg范围内为黄檗适宜分布的环境因子区间。【结论】我国野生黄檗分布还远远没有达到其潜在的分布范围,山东、山西、河南、内蒙等目前资料显示分布并不广泛的省份也是进行野生黄檗迁地保护和人工种植的可选区域。对影响黄檗分布和适生性的关键因子进行分析后表明,温度季节性变化标准差越大其适生程度越高(14000-16000),说明黄檗对于温度的承受范围较大;年均降水量处于700mm左右其适生程度最高,说明黄檗对于水分要求为中等水平;坡度为2-8°范围内野生黄檗的适生程度最高,说明黄檗多分布在缓坡地带,年均温在4℃其适生程度最高;土壤有机碳含量在50g/kg左右其适生程度最高。
Abstract:
【Objective】Amur corktree (Phellodendron amurense Rupr.) is listed as a second-class protected species in national key protected plant lists,and scattered in broad-leaved forest in small populations. In recent years, a series of protective measures have been taken from the national level or at the local government level, and the man-made damage has been greatly reduced. However, the number of amur cork populations has not been increased significantly. In this paper, the potential distribution area of amur corktree in China is analyzed from the ecological point of view And its suitability evaluation, to provide technical support for in situ conservation and ex situ conservation of wild amur corktree population.【Method】According to the field investigation and literature review, we obtained 69 distribution points of amur corktree which included accurate geographic information,Simultaneously, 3 topographic variables (alt, SLO, ASP), five soil variables (grav, pH, radi, rub, oc) and 19 bioclimatic variables (bio1-bio19) were downloaded from the world climate database (world-clim) . we tested the correlations between these environmental factors by multiple collinearity analysis, and some environmental factors with high correlations were excluded, The final results include 6 climatic variables (BIO1, bio3, bio4, bio12, bio15, prec1) and 3 topographic variables (alt, ASP, SLO) and five soil variables (grav, pH, radi, rub, oc) that 14 environmental factors as environmental variables, and then we predicted the potential distribution area of Amur corktree in China and its suitable grades were evaluated by useing the maximum entropy model (MaxEnt) and GIS , meanwhile, we analyzed the key factors that influence the distribution and growth of the amur corktree andthe appropriate range of these factors. 【Results】1)The potential suitable distribution area of Amur corktree in China is mainly concentrated in the northeastern region and most areas of Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, as well as in northern Henan, southeastern Inner Mongolia. The total areas of suitable distribution area for amur corktree are 11.71 million km2, accounting for 12.27% of the total area of our country,and among all these areas,the highly suitable area was 189400 km2, accounting for 1.97% of the total area of our country,where including the eastern part of Heilongjiang Province, most part of Jilin Province, the southeastern part of Liaoning Province and most areas of Beijing. 2)Standard deviation of seasonal variation of temperature (35.7%),annual precipitation (28%),slope (6.5%), mean annual temperature (6.7%) and organic carbon content (5.8%) are the 5 main environmental factors influencing the distribution of the Amur corktree, and the total rate of contribution are 82.7%.The seasonal variation in temperature standard deviation in the range of 14000-16000, the average annual rainfall in the range of 600mm-800mm, the slope in the range of 2-8 °, the average annual temperature in the range of 1-7℃ , the soil organic carbon content in the range of 25-65g / kg are the suitable range for amur corktree distribution .【Conclusion】The distribution of wild amur corktree in China is far from its potential distribution, Shandong, Shanxi, Henan and Inner Mongolia are also available provinces for amur corktree distribution, where amur corktree are not widely distributednow. The analysis of the key factors influencing the distribution and growth of amur corktree showed that the higher of the standard deviation of seasonal variation of temperature(14000-16000), the higher of the degree for Amur corktree growth ; The average annual precipitation of 700mm is the most suitable precipitation for amur corktree growth, which showed that amur corktree has a moderate requirement for water; The Slope of 2-8°are the most suitable, which showed that the amur corktree usually distributed in gentle slope; And the average annual temperature of 4℃ ,soil organic carbon content of 50g / kg are also the most suitable for amur corktree growth.
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