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韩丽丽,贺纪正.病毒生态学研究进展.生态学报,2016,36(16):4988~4996 本文二维码信息
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病毒生态学研究进展
Advances in viral ecology research
投稿时间:2015-01-21  修订日期:2016-06-06
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201501210170
关键词病毒  多样性  基因水平转移  生物地球化学循环  土壤环境
Key Wordsvirus  diversity  horizontal gene transfer  biogeochemical cycles  soil habitat
基金项目国家自然科学基金资助项目(41571248,41301265,41230857)
作者单位E-mail
韩丽丽 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085  
贺纪正 中国科学院生态环境研究中心 城市与区域生态国家重点实验室, 北京 100085 jzhe@rcees.ac.cn 
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摘要:
病毒是目前所知的最简单的生命单元,通常由外壳蛋白和包裹在外壳蛋白内的核酸两部分组成。病毒本身缺乏完整的酶系统及能量转化系统,当游离于环境中时,它只是一个有机大分子,只有侵染宿主后才具有生命特征,进行复制。病毒也是地球上最丰富的生物实体,是微生物群落和功能的重要影响因素。尽管病毒在生态系统中发挥着重要的作用,但因病毒间缺少通用的标记基因,病毒生态学的研究远远滞后于细菌和真核生物。近年来高通量测序技术的发展应用帮助人们发现和认识了许多未知的新病毒及其基因,极大地丰富了病毒基因数据库,直接推动了病毒生态学的发展。从生态学角度对病毒的结构与分类、病毒生态学研究方法、病毒的生态功能及土壤病毒生态学研究进展作一简要综述,并提出今后土壤病毒生态学研究的重点。
Abstract:
Viruses are usually composed of a small fragment of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by coat protein, and have been recognized as the simplest living organisms known thus far. Viruses exist only as organic macromolecules when in the environment, because they lack integral enzyme and energy transformation systems. However, once they infect host cells, viruses become active and begin to replicate. Despite their dependence on host cells to reproduce, viruses are the most ubiquitous living organisms, and important drivers influencing microbial communities and ecosystem functioning. However, our understanding of the microbial ecology of viruses in the environment has not kept pace with the rapid advances of studies on bacteria and eukaryotes, owing to the lack of a universal phylogenetic biomarker. Virus particles are widely distributed in the environment, with the abundance of viruses in soils ranging from 1.5×108 g-1 to 109 g-1 soil. Soil-dwelling viruses belong to four morphological types: tailed bacteriophage-like particles, spherical particles, thin filaments, and thick filaments. Most soil virus particles can be identified using electron microscopy. With the rapid development of molecular methodologies, signature genes have been identified in order to investigate the diversity within specific virus groups. These genes include auxiliary metabolism genes and polymerase genes, as well as those encoding structural proteins such as portal protein, major capsid protein, and tail sheath protein, etc. Signature genes have been used in combination with PCR-based fingerprinting and sequencing approaches, in order to investigate the spatial and temporal variations of viruses, as well as their diversity across a wide range of habitats. The development of next-generation sequencing platforms has been followed by a large number of metagenomic studies focusing on bacteria, archaea, and fungi from many environments. A large number of new viruses and genes have also been discovered and identified, which has greatly enriched the virus gene database and contributed significantly to the development of the field of viral ecology; however, our understanding of the soil viruses found in different soil types is still in its infancy. Viruses play several important roles in soil ecology. First, they have the ability to infect soil microorganisms and thus change the functions and nutrients provided by the soils, by altering such factors as nutrient element biogeochemical cycles. Second, viruses acting as shuttle vectors can lead to genetic innovation and bacterial horizontal gene transfer, which facilitates the rapid adaptation of soil bacteria to changing conditions via the transferral of beneficial genes. Thirdly, viruses can affect their host's metabolism by encoding homologous host genes to modify cell physiology in a way that benefits the infecting virions.Here, we summarize the latest knowledge of the community structure and classification of viruses, their ecological functions, the research methodologies of viral ecology, and in particular, appropriate strategies for surveying the complex biology of soil viruses. Furthermore, we propose several important areas, which should be considered for future study.
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