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杨刚,许洁,王勇,丁由中,袁晓,裴恩乐,马波,王小明,王正寰.城市公园植被特征对陆生鸟类集团的影响.生态学报,2015,35(14):4824~4835 本文二维码信息
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城市公园植被特征对陆生鸟类集团的影响
The influence of vegetation structure on bird guilds in an urban park
投稿时间:2013-11-04  修订日期:2015-05-12
DOI: 10.5846/stxb201311042667
关键词植被特征  鸟类集团  生态位重叠  主成分分析  鸟类行为
Key Wordsvegetation structure  bird guilds  niche overlap  principal component analysis  bird behavior
基金项目上海市绿化和市容管理局专项基金; 浦东新区科技发展基金(PKJ2011-N020); 上海市城市化生态过程与生态恢复重点实验室开放课题基金
作者单位E-mail
杨刚 华东师范大学生命科学学院, 上海 200062
华东师范大学上海市城市化过程与恢复重点实验室, 上海 200241 
 
许洁 华东师范大学生命科学学院, 上海 200062
华东师范大学上海市城市化过程与恢复重点实验室, 上海 200241 
 
王勇 华东师范大学生命科学学院, 上海 200062
华东师范大学上海市城市化过程与恢复重点实验室, 上海 200241 
 
丁由中 华东师范大学生命科学学院, 上海 200062
华东师范大学上海市城市化过程与恢复重点实验室, 上海 200241 
 
袁晓 上海市野生动植物保护管理站, 上海 200023  
裴恩乐 上海市野生动植物保护管理站, 上海 200023  
马波 上海市野生动植物保护管理站, 上海 200023  
王小明 上海科技馆, 上海 200127  
王正寰 华东师范大学生命科学学院, 上海 200062
华东师范大学上海市城市化过程与恢复重点实验室, 上海 200241 
zhwang@bio.ecnu.edu.cn 
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摘要:
城市公共绿地是城市生态系统中重要的鸟类栖息地,其植被特征对鸟类集团存在显著影响。在通过分析植被特征对陆生鸟类集团的作用,从而为公园合理配置植被来提高其作为野生动物栖息地的生态服务功能提供理论基础。2009 年10 月至2011 年10 月,采用样线法对上海滨江森林公园进行鸟类调查,利用主成分分析划分鸟类集团,用高度定义植被层次,用卡方检验分析鸟类行为在植被层次上的差异。结果表明,滨江森林公园陆生鸟类群落在乔木层的栖息行为和运动行为频次显著多于其在灌木层和地被层的行为频次,在地被层的取食行为频次显著多于其在乔木层和灌木层的行为频次。陆生鸟类可划分为8 个鸟类集团,鸟类集团之间存在栖息、运动和取食空间生态位的重叠。食虫拾取集团、杂食拾取集团、食肉飞取集团和植食拾取集团在栖息、运动和取食空间生态位上均存在较高的重叠度,其通过食性分离各自空间生态位。食虫探取集团和食虫飞取集团互为栖息空间生态位重叠度最高集团,其通过取食方式的不同来实现生态位的分离。根据公园植被特征对鸟类集团的影响结果对上海市公园绿地植被配置提出了建议。
Abstract:
The acceleration of urbanization has led to a loss of biodiversity, which is a global ecological problem of great concern. Meanwhile, birds are useful indicators in monitoring environmental changes in urban ecosystem. Urban green areas have always been paid great attention because of their functions as natural habitats for many wildlife species. Bird guilds are groups of species that use environmental resources in similar ways. Therefore, we analyze the function of vegetation structure to bird community and bird guilds so that we make suggestions related to the design of urban green spaces in Shanghai. From October 2009 to October 2011, we set the line transect to survey the bird community in Shanghai Binjing Forest Park. According to the height of plant, we divided the habitat vegetation into three vertical levels including tree layer, shrub layer and ground layer. Chi-square test showed that there were significant differences among behaviors in three vegetation layers. The frequency of perching and moving in tree layer was more significant than that in other two layers and the frequency of feeding in ground layer was more significant than that in other two layers. According to the variables based on the location, feeding habits and foraging behavior pattern of birds, we classified 8 bird guilds including herbivorous collecting, herbivorous pecking, insectivorous collecting, insectivorous flying catching, insectivorous pecking, omnivorous collecting, omnivorous pecking and raptorial flying catching. There were differences and overlaps among the frequency of three behaviors of 8 bird guilds in three layers, so we considered there was niche overlap among 8 bird guilds. According to Morisita-Horn Index, the results indicated that insectivorous collecting guild, omnivorous collecting guild, flying catching guild and herbivorous collecting guild had high niche overlap of perching, and moving and feeding so these guilds reached niche separation by their diets. Insectivorous pecking guild and insectivorous flying catching guild had the most perching niche overlap with each other, and they reached niche separation by their foraging behavior patterns. Based on the results above, we concluded that trees were one of the most important vegetation components that enhance the bird species richness and diversity in urban green spaces because they provide roosting, nesting, hiding, and foraging sites. The shield function of shrub cover was confirmed to be an important habitat component and the ground layer provided food resources to bird community. The suggestion and recommendation in construction of urban parks was presented based on this study. The density and coverage of shrub layer should improve and large area of artificial lawn should be divided into several small pieces. We also discuss the conflicts between habitat for biodiversity maintenance and recreational function in urban parks.
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