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Volume 39,Issue 5
  • Characteristics of nutrient translocation before branch and leaf abscission in a second-generation Chinese fir plantation at different stand ages
  • Authors:LÜ Zhongcheng, KANG Wenxing, HUANG Zhihong, ZHAO Zhonghui and DENG Xiangwen
  • Abstract:To provide a scientific basis for the sustainable management of plantations, continuously determined basic data of 25 years on the characteristics of Chinese fir plantation, including information on nutrient transfer before branches and leaves wither, were studied, and the changes in nutrient transfer with forest age were discussed. The results showed that the annual average amount of nutrients transferred before the branches and leaves withered was 3.22 to 31.89 kg hm-2 yr-1, among which, the leaves accounted for 71.31% to 94.41% and branches for 5.59% to 28.69%. The amount of nutrient transfer in the branches increased with increasing forest age. Before 20 years of forest age, nutrient transfer rate of the leaves increased, and thereafter, it decreased. The nutrient transfer rate of the branches was 20.97% to 22.59%, and that of the leaves was 22.98% to 26.06%, and these increased with increasing forest age. There was no significant difference detected in nutrient resorption rate among the branches in different age groups and leaves older than 7 years (P > 0.05), except in plantations 1 to 7 years old (P < 0.05). Among the elements transferred, N and K accounted for 83.75% to 84.25%, and P, Ca, and Mg accounted for 15.75% to 16.25%. The transfer rates of N, P, K, Ca, and Mg were 24.59% to 34.53%, 36.36% to 46.64%, 42.86% to 51.27%, 3.68% to 7.35%, and 3.67% to 9.56%, respectively. The nutrient resorption rate was mainly controlled by the nutrient concentration differences between before and after leaf litter fall and nutrient concentration before leaf and branch abscission. However, the amount of nutrient translocation is not only affected by differences in nutrient concentration before and after litter fall, but also depends on the amount of litter fall and the growth status of Chinese fir plantations.
  • DownLoad:Characteristics of nutrient translocation before branch and leaf abscission in a second-generation Chinese fir plantation at different stand ages.PDF
  • Dynamic changes in soil microbial miomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus of Taxodium distichum and Salix matsudana plantation in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region
  • Authors:YANG Wenhang, REN Qingshui, LI Changxiao, SONG Hong, YUAN Zhongxun, MA Wenchao, CUI Yunfeng and WANG Chaoying
  • Abstract:The operation of the Three Gorges Dam Reservoir (TGDR) on the Yangtze River, China, has formed a hydro-fluctuation belt with an annual water level change of 30 m, spanning an area of 350 km2. This has led to a decline in plant community within the hydro-fluctuation belt. Revegetation is an eco-friendly method that can be used to restore the ecological integrity of the hydro-fluctuation zone of the TGDR. This method also facilitates the proper maintenance of the functions and services of riparian ecosystem. Therefore, in this study, revegetation of the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) of China was carried out in the Ruxi River basin in Gonghe Village of Shibao Township, Zhong County, Chongqing Municipality of China. The changes in soil fertility and quality were evaluated by assessing the content of soil microbial biomass carbon (SMBC), soil microbial biomass nitrogen (SMBN), and soil microbial biomass phosphorus (SMBP). Soil samples were collected from plots of previously planted T. distichum and S. matsudana woodland in Zhong County of the TGR in June 2016 (T1), September 2016 (T2), June 2017 (T3), and September 2017 (T4) at elevations between 165 and 175 m above sea level. The results showed the following.:(1) Under the conditions of flooding (T2-T3), the soil microbial biomass was low. The soil microbial biomass increased significantly after the restorative growth of T. distichum and S. matsudana during the period of drawdown (T1-T2 and T3-T4), indicating that artificial vegetation restoration has a positive effect on soil microbial recovery. (2) The SMBC/SOC and SMBN/TN of T. distichum and S. matsudana woodland were significantly higher than those of unplanted soil, indicating that the soil turnover rate was faster in the artificial vegetation restoration soil. However, the phosphorus level in the soil of T. distichum varied significantly, which necessitates further evaluation of phosphorus migration within soil. (3) The soil microbial biomass significantly correlated with the soil organic C and total N, but it negatively correlated with the soil pH. Overall, the revegetation of T. distichum and S. matsudana increased soil microbial biomass, and also enhanced the soil quality of the hydro-fluctuation belt. The results of this study further validate artificial revegetation as a suitable method for ecosystem restoration.
  • DownLoad:Dynamic changes in soil microbial miomass carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus of Taxodium distichum and Salix matsudana plantation in the hydro-fluctuation belt of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.PDF
  • Genotypic diversity of a dominant species Leymus chinensis inhibited ecological function of species diversity in the Inner Mongolia Steppe
  • Authors:WANG Yukun, DING Xinfeng, WANG Xiaoping, WU Man, GAO Shaobo, YANG Xue, ZHAO Nianxi and GAO Yubao
  • Abstract:Community ecologists have focused on whether there exists an interactive effect between species diversity and genotypic diversity of dominant species on community ecological function in recent years. In the present study, we selected some common species in the Inner Mongolia Steppe as study objects, and examined how the genotypic diversity of the dominant species, the species diversity of common species and their interactions influenced the community biomass. (1) Genotypic diversity of Leymus chinensis, species diversity, and their interactions did not significantly influence the community aboveground, belowground, or total biomass (P > 0.05). (2) The genotypic diversity of L. chinensis, species diversity, and their interactions significantly influenced diversity effects (net diversity effect, complementarity effect, and selection effect) on community biomass (P < 0.05). The genotypic diversity of L. chinensis inhibited the net diversity effect, mainly complementarity effect. However, species diversity promoted the net diversity effect, in particular, selection effect on aboveground biomass. (3) The net diversity effect on ecological function of the community biomass was mainly due to complementarity effect. The above results provided not only an important message for exploring whether species diversity or genotypic diversity of dominant species plays a more important role in influencing the diversity effect on community biomass, but also proper guides for protection and rational utilization of seed resources, and moreover, for the ecosystem recovery and re-establishment in the Inner Mongolia Steppe.
  • DownLoad:Genotypic diversity of a dominant species Leymus chinensis inhibited ecological function of species diversity in the Inner Mongolia Steppe.PDF
  • Morphological characteristics of leaf guard cells in six crops in response to the volatile stress of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. from different invaded habitats
  • Authors:HUANG Su, MA Danwei, LU Xin and ZHANG Hong
  • Abstract:Chengdu City (Sichuan Province) and Anshun City (Guizhou Province) are the regions that an invasive plant, Chenopodium ambrosioides L., invades very seriously in China. Chengdu City is located in the Sichuan Basin with a pleasant climate and superior hydrothermal conditions, but Anshun City is located in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau with karst land feature, thin soil, high altitude, and frequent drought. To explore the differences in the allelopathy of C. ambrosioides in different habitats, the C. ambrosioides plants grown in Chengdu and Anshun cities were selected as research objects because of their obvious differences in environmental characteristics. The volatile oils of the C. ambrosioides plants from Chengdu and Anshun were extracted by steam distillation, and their yields were 3.173 and 4.820 g/kg, respectively. The analysis results of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis showed that the C. ambrosioides volatile oils from Chengdu and Anshun contained 16 and 25 compounds, respectively, and α-terpinene and cymene were their common components. The concentrations of α-terpinene and cymene were determined based on their contents in the volatile oils from both cities. In this study, we used six receptor plant species, including Vicia faba L., Arachis hypogaea L., Allium tuberosum Rottl. ex Spreng., Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, Pisum sativum L., and Brassica campestris L., which are widely grown in the farmlands invaded by C. ambrosioides. These receptor plants were separately treated with eight treatments, including the treatments with the C. ambrosioides volatile oils from both cities and with α-terpinene, cymene, and α-terpinene+cymene extracted from the volatile oils from both cities. The activities and nuclear structures of leaf stoma guard cells were examined by using the epidermal strip method. The results showed that these cells had nuclear aberrations, including nuclear deformities, nuclear pyknosis, and nuclear translocations. Moreover, the stoma guard cell activities were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) or even completely absent under the eight treatments, and these effects became more significant with an increase in treatment concentrations, and the maximum mortality and nuclear aberration rate of stoma guard cells were 93.85% and 81.16%, respectively. Among the six crop plants tested, F. esculentum had the strongest allelopathic effect, followed by P. sativum, V. faba, A. tuberosum, A. hypogaea, and finally B. campestris, according to their sensitivity to C. ambrosioides volatile oil, α-terpinene, and cymene. In this study, the cytotoxicity of the volatile oil of C. ambrosioides from Anshun was greater than that from Chengdu, and the cytotoxicity of α-terpinene was greater than that of cymene. The higher the proportion of α-terpinene in the α-terpinene+cymene solutions, the stronger the cytotoxicity they exerted. These results suggested that the allelochemicals of C. ambrosioides damaged the stoma guard cell structures of receptor plants, and when C. ambrosioides invades the habitats with relatively poor environmental conditions, it releases increased amounts of allelopathic chemicals in its surroundings for its competitive advantages.
  • DownLoad:Morphological characteristics of leaf guard cells in six crops in response to the volatile stress of Chenopodium ambrosioides L. from different invaded habitats.PDF
  • Spatial-temporal change in vegetation Net Primary Productivity and its response to climate and human activities in Qinghai Plateau in the past 16 years
  • Authors:LIU Feng and ZENG Yongnian
  • Abstract:Based on MOD13Q1-250-m resolution-16-day synthesis NDVI data for the Qinghai Plateau from 2000 to 2015, by using the improved CASA model, we estimated the vegetation net primary productivity (NPP) of the Qinghai Plateau, analyzed the characteristics and regularities of NPP spatial-temporal variation, evaluated the correlation between NPP and meteorological factors, and explored the ecological effect of ecological protection project in different regions. The results indicate the following:① The average annual NPP in the Qinghai Plateau is 242.50 g C m-2 a-1, which is high in the east and south and increases from northwest to southeast. ② During 2000-2015, the annual amount of NPP increased stably from 53.24 to 96.56 Tg C, with an annual growth rate of 1.32 Tg C/a. ③ The warm and humid climate is the main factor affecting the increase in vegetation NPP, and precipitation and temperature are significant factors in the inter-annual fluctuation of NPP in the Qinghai Plateau. Additionally, in different areas, the factors controlling NPP growth differed. ④ The implementation of different ecological protection projects has a varying influence on spatial-temporal patterns and inter-annual trends in regional NPP. Among them, the annual increasing trend in NPP in the Sanjiangyuan region was the most obvious, followed by the Qinghai Lake area, Eastern region, and Qaidam region.
  • DownLoad:Spatial-temporal change in vegetation Net Primary Productivity and its response to climate and human activities in Qinghai Plateau in the past 16 years.PDF
  • Responses of plant functional trait and diversity to soil water and salinity changes in desert ecosystem
  • Authors:ZHANG Xueni, LI Yan, HE Xuemin, YANG Xiaodong and LÜ Guanghui
  • Abstract:Exploring the response of plant functional trait to environmental variations is essential to elucidate the adaptation mechanism and community assembly of desert plants under extreme environmental conditions, and more importantly to formulate strategies to protect and restore desert ecosystem. However, previous studies are mostly large scale, and only a few studies have focused on the effects of soil water and salinity on desert plant functional trait and diversity at fine scale. It is known that, even at fine scales, environmental variables (e.g., soil variables) can actually be heterogeneous and affect plant. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to analyze (1) how morphological, physiological, and chemical functional traits of desert plant, and functional richness, evenness, and dispersion indexes respond to varied soil water and salinity and (2) what community assembly process did functional diversity revealed in different soil water and salinity environment? Three transects were set at 5-km intervals perpendicular to the northern bank of the Aqikesu River in the Ebinur Lake Wetland Nature Reserve (ELWNR). At each transect, the soil gradually changed from saline to sandy soil with the increase in distance from the river. Ten to twelve plots (10×10 m2) were set at an interval of 500 m in each transect. A total of 32 plots were set across the three transects. The geographic data (longitude, latitude, and altitude), number of species, plant abundance (number of individuals of each species), and height of each individual sampled in each plot were recorded. The chlorophyll content (SPAD) was measured by SPAD502, and soil volumetric water content (SVWC) at a depth of 12 cm was measured by time domain reflectometry before sampling. The leaf and soil samples were then collected for further investigation. Based on the investigation and analysis, responses of one morphological (height), one physiological (SPAD) and six chemical functional traits (leaf carbon (C), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), potassium (K), and calcium (Ca) content), and response of multidimensional and single dimensional functional diversities to soil water and salinity were explored. The results showed the following. (1) The community weighted mean height, SPAD, and leaf C and Ca content in high soil water and salinity sites (SW1) were significantly higher than those in low soil water and salinity sites (SW2). The leaf N, P, and S content had no significant differences across the two sites. (2) In SW1 sites, the plant functional trait differences generally decreased along the tree-small tree-shrub-herb life form level, with only leaf N and K content exhibiting significant difference between shrub and herb. Furthermore, plant functional trait showed convergence along the life form level. (3) In SW2 sites, functional trait differences in trees were similar to those in the SW1; the leaf C and N content were significantly higher than those in shrubs and herbs. Furthermore, the SPAD and leaf S content of shrubs were significantly higher than those in herbs, whilst, the leaf K content of shrubs was lower than that in herbs. The height, and leaf C, N, and P content exhibited no significant differences between shrubs and herbs. The plant functional traits among life forms in SW2 site presented a trend of convergence. (4) The multidimensional functional richness (FAD2) and functional divergence (Rao) in SW1 sites were higher than those in SW2 sites, whilst, the functional evenness showed no difference. (5) All single dimensional functional evenness showed no difference between high and low soil water content and salinity; however, functional evenness of chemical trait was generally higher than that of plant height. Furthermore, functional logarithmic variance (FDvar) of leaf N, S, and Ca in SW1 was significantly higher than that of SW2. The study provides references to understand the adaption mechanism of plants subjected to extreme environments and to recover desert plants.
  • DownLoad:Responses of plant functional trait and diversity to soil water and salinity changes in desert ecosystem.PDF
  • Simulation of potential distribution patterns of the invasive plant species Xanthium spinosum L. (Bathurst burr) in Xinjiang under climate change
  • Authors:SAYIT Hamit, NURBAY Abdushalih, XU Zhonglin, ARMAN Jiesisi, SHAO Hua and VINIRA Yilihar
  • Abstract:Understanding the potential distribution patterns and responses to climate change of invasive plant species on a regional scale is of great significance for the prevention and control of invasive species. In the present study, the invasive plant species Xanthium spinosum L. (Bathurst burr) was studied in the Xinjiang region, where the species is widely distributed. Xinjiang was selected as the study region for constructing a BCC-CSM1-1 model developed by the China National Climate Center to simulate future climate conditions. A MaxEnt model and the ArcGIS spatial analyst tool were used to construct predictive models of suitable habitats for X. spinosum in the 2050s and 2070s under two future climate change scenarios (RCP 4.5 and 8.5). The ultimate aim was to quantitatively demonstrate the dispersal trends of X. spinosum in Xinjiang, variations in the area of suitable habitat, and the movement path of the center of distribution. The results indicated that annual precipitation, subsoil organic carbon content, topsoil pH, annual temperature range, seasonal variations in annual precipitation, and annual average temperature are dominant environmental factors that affect the geographical distribution of X. spinosum. Bortala, Tacheng, Northwest Altay, Central Hami, Northern Bayingol, Central Kizilsu, Northern Aksu, Kuytun City, Karamay City, Wujiaqu City, and Kashgar City were identified as areas with high invasion risk. Trends of a continuous increase in the area of suitable habitat at the respective levels and in the total area of suitable habitat for X. spinosum were predicted for both climate scenarios, with the responses being more sensitive in the RCP 8.5 scenario (high emissions). In general, the distribution of X. spinosum in Xinjiang has not reached saturation, with the species being radially dispersed towards the north piedmont of Tianshan Mountains and the northern margin of the Taklamakan Desert from the center of distribution in central Tacheng. The center of distribution is predicted to move towards Kuitun in Ili Prefecture by 2070 under both climate change scenarios.
  • DownLoad:Simulation of potential distribution patterns of the invasive plant species Xanthium spinosum L. (Bathurst burr) in Xinjiang under climate change.PDF
  • Spatiotemporal changes in vegetation and hydrological factors in the North China Plain from 2002 to 2016
  • Authors:CAO Yanping, QIN Fen, PANG Yingjun, ZHAO Fang and HUANG Jinting
  • Abstract:In this study we investigated the spatial-temporal dynamics and trends of vegetation and its association with changes in various hydrological factors in the North China Plain between 2002 and 2016, by combining the MODIS enhanced vegetation index (EVI) with precipitation, GRACE gravity satellite terrestrial water storage (TWS), groundwater, and soil moisture. Our results showed that:(1) from 2002 to 2016, the vegetation of the North China Plain exhibited an increasing trend, whereas there was a decreasing trend in the hydrological factors (TWS, soil moisture, groundwater); (2) being mainly covered by crops, the vegetation in the Huanghuai plain area increased during the study period. However, precipitation, TWS, groundwater, and soil moisture all decreased. Over-exploitation of groundwater to irrigate crops is an important measure to ensure food security in the short term; (3) the contrasting trends in the decreasing vegetation coverage, TWS, soil moisture, and groundwater with increasing precipitation over the urban and rural residential areas in the Yanshan-taihang mountains piedmont plain and Ji-lu-yu low lying plain may be a result of influences from intense human activities; (4) the natural forest and grassland ecosystems located in the Shandong hilly agroforestry region were positively correlated with precipitation during the study period, both showing decreasing trends. Results from this research will generate a better understanding of vegetation dynamics in different ecological environments and its response mechanisms to changes of different hydrological factors. This will guide the design of rational water-use strategies for a changing climate and increasing anthropological activities.
  • DownLoad:Spatiotemporal changes in vegetation and hydrological factors in the North China Plain from 2002 to 2016.PDF
  • Seasonal variation in C, N, and P stoichiometry of Platycladus orientalis plantation in the rocky mountainous areas of North China
  • Authors:FENG Huanying, DU Manyi, XIN Xuebing, GAO Xu, ZHANG Lianjin, KONG Qingyun, FA Lei and WU Di
  • Abstract:This study was conducted to analyze the dynamics of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P), and their stoichiometric characteristics in different organs (leaves, branches, and roots) and during different seasons, in a young plantation of Platycladus orientalis in the Beijing Jiulong nature reserve. Studies on these relationship provide insights into interactions among plant functional traits and plant strategies for resource acquisition and mass partitioning. The results showed that branches contained the highest concentration of C but the lowest concentration of N. Leaves had the highest concentrations of N and P, whereas roots possessed the lowest concentration of C and P. Moreover, leaves had the lowest C:N and C:P ratios, whereas roots had the highest ratios of N:P and C:P, and branches had the highest C:N ratio but the lowest N:P ratio. Furthermore, during the growing season, the concentration of C in each organ was more stable than that of N and P. The C:N and N:P ratios in each organ were more stable than the C:P ratio. Both C and N concentration were strongly positively correlated with P concentration, with the change in C:P and N:P ratios being mainly determined by P concentration. Plant organs differed significantly in terms of the concentrations of C, N, and P and the ratios C:N, C:P, and N:P, whereas seasonal factors significantly influenced the concentrations of N and P, but their interaction effect only had influence on the concentration of P. Compared with the seasonal variations, the difference between organs made a larger contribution in determining the concentrations of C, N, and P and their stoichiometry in P. orientalis. The concentrations of C, N, and P and their stoichiometry showed no significant relationships among plant organs, except for the concentration of P and the C:P ratio between leaves and branches, which indicates that the organs have specific requirements for element absorption and utilization during the process of organ differentiation. The recorded leaf N:P ratio less than 14 indicates that the growth of young P. orientalis plants is more restricted by N during the growing seasons.
  • DownLoad:Seasonal variation in C, N, and P stoichiometry of Platycladus orientalis plantation in the rocky mountainous areas of North China.PDF
  • Study of temporal and spatial variation and driving force of fractional vegetation cover in upper reaches of Minjiang River from 2006 to 2016
  • Authors:ZHU Cong, PENG Wenfu, ZHANG Lifang, LUO Yao, DONG Yongbo and WANG Meifang
  • Abstract:Based on moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) remote sensing data, the fractional vegetation cover in the upper reaches of Minjiang River was estimated using a pixel dichotomy model. Furthermore, the temporal and spatial variation pattern and stability of the fractional vegetation cover in the upper reaches of Minjiang River from 2006 to 2016 were studied using univariate linear regression and stability analyses. The damage degree of the vegetation in the upper reaches of Minjiang River and the vegetation restoration after the earthquake are discussed in sections. The influencing factors of fractional vegetation cover in the upper reaches of Minjiang River were detected using the Geographic detector model. The driving force of vegetation cover change in the upper reaches of Minjiang River was analyzed. The results showed the following. (1) The fractional vegetation cover in the upper reaches of Minjiang River from 2006 to 2016 was good, and the overall fractional vegetation cover was stable. The annual average fractional vegetation cover was 0.79, and the area with fractional vegetation cover > 0.8 accounted for 69% of the total area of the upper reaches of the Minjiang River. (2) The "5.12 Wenchuan earthquake" in 2008 seriously damaged the vegetation in the upper reaches of Minjiang River. The degraded area of fractional vegetation cover was 14013.41 km2, which accounted for 57% of the total area of the upper reaches of the Minjiang River.The vegetation restoration condition in the upper reaches of Minjiang River from 2008 to 2016 was good.The area of fractional vegetation cover improvement was 17390.69 km2, which accounted for 71% of the total area of the upper reaches of the Minjiang River. The fractional vegetation cover in the upper reaches of Minjiang River exceeded the pre-earthquake level. (3) The fractional vegetation cover in the upper reaches of Minjiang River was mainly affected by four factors:altitude, temperature, agrotype, and precipitation. Its explanatory power was > 40%, the interpretation of the Geomorphic type and vegetation types was between 20% and 40%, and the interpretation of slope and aspect was < 1%.
  • DownLoad:Study of temporal and spatial variation and driving force of fractional vegetation cover in upper reaches of Minjiang River from 2006 to 2016.PDF
  • The response of tree-ring chronologies of Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey.) to climate change at high-and low-elevations of the eastern Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, using different detrending methods
  • Authors:PENG Zhengbing, LI Xinjian, ZHANG Ruibo, QIN Li, ZHANG Heli, CHEN Youping and LIU Rui
  • Abstract:Tree-ring samples from Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey.) were collected from high-and low-elevations of the eastern Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang. Three detrending methods (smoothing spline, negative exponential function, and regional curve) were used to develop tree-ring width chronologies. The characteristics of these chronologies and the relationship between radial growth and climate change at different elevations were compared. The results showed that (1) detrending method had little effect on the reliability of the chronologies, and the chronologies from low elevations contained more reliable climate change information. (2) The radial growth at high elevations positively correlated with the mean temperature from June to September; the correlation coefficient for the standardized tree-ring chronology and temperature in July was 0.553 (P < 0.01, n=58). The temperature in the summer may be the main limiting factor for the radial growth of these trees at high elevation. Meanwhile, the radial growth of trees at low elevation was positively correlated with precipitation in spring, and negatively correlated with mean temperature in the spring. Higher temperatures and lower precipitation in the spring combined to cause a drought in the early growing season. Furthermore, the drought in the spring limited the radial growth of trees. (3) The regional curve method retained more low-frequency information in the tree-ring standardized chronology, but the advantage was not obvious. There were higher correlation coefficients in the low-frequency of the chronologies between high elevation and low elevations. In summary, the negative exponential function method may be more suitable than the smoothing spline and regional curve methods for dendroclimatology studies on the eastern Tianshan Mountains.
  • DownLoad:The response of tree-ring chronologies of Schrenk spruce (Picea schrenkiana Fisch. et Mey.) to climate change at high-and low-elevations of the eastern Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, using different detrending methods.PDF
  • Simulated climate warming and nitrogen deposition influence leaf traits and leaf trait spectrum in Solidago canadensis from China and North America
  • Authors:ZHOU Xiaohui, PENG Peihao and LI Jingji
  • Abstract:Temperature is a key factor that affects plant growth, and nitrogen (N) is an important resource for plant growth and photosynthesis. Changes in temperature and N may strongly influence the functional traits of invasive plants. The aim of this study was to predict the potential invasiveness of invasive plants in response to climate warming and atmospheric N deposition. We conducted a simulated warming and N deposition experiment at Chengdu. In this experiment, we selected Solidago canadensis from China and North America as the focal invader and set up four experimental treatments:(1) ambient, (2) warming (2℃ above the ambient), (3) N addition (4 g N m-2 a-1 in the form of NH4NO3), and (4) warming plus N addition. We determined three leaf traits, leaf chlorophyll content, leaf area, and leaf dry matter content, as well as three relationships among the traits. Our results showed that Solidago canadensis from China had a lower leaf dry matter content than that from North America. Warming increased the leaf area of Solidago canadensis, and N addition increased its chlorophyll content. Sources and warming had significant effects on leaf area. The leaf area of S. canadensis from China decreased significantly with increasing leaf dry matter content. In the warming treatment, the leaf area of S. canadensis was significantly positively correlated with chlorophyll content; in the N addition treatment, the leaf area was significantly positively correlated with chlorophyll content and significantly negatively correlated with leaf dry matter content. These findings suggest that warming and N addition could enhance the ability of S. canadensis leaves to obtain resources. In addition, our results imply that climate warming and atmospheric N deposition may increase the invasion risk of Solidago canadensis.
  • DownLoad:Simulated climate warming and nitrogen deposition influence leaf traits and leaf trait spectrum in Solidago canadensis from China and North America.PDF
  • Remote sensing estimation and analysis of net primary productivity (NPP) based on corrected CASA model: A case study of Hexi Corridor
  • Authors:LI Chuanhua, CAO Hongjuan, FAN Yeping, HAN Haiyan, SUN Hao and WANG Yutao
  • Abstract:The CASA model is widely used in estimating vegetation net primary productivity (NPP), but its accuracy needs to be improved. Based on the geographical factor regression method (AMMRR) and land surface water index (LSWI), this study aimed to correct the temperature stress coefficient and water stress coefficient, two key parameters of CASA model. Next, we continued to estimate NPP and analyze the effect of the correction on vegetation and on the relationship between NPP and other factors. Results showed that:(1) The correction could effectively improve the estimation accuracy of the CASA model. The amount of corrected NPP was 34.29 TgC/a, but the original NPP was 34.52 TgC/a; therefore, the NPP of the original model was overestimated by 0.23 TgC/a. (2) This method can not only correct the influence of terrain on NPP, but also corrects the impact of human activities areas on NPP under flat terrain. In areas with high altitude, large topographic relief, as well as in human activities areas, the correction had a large impact on NPP estimation, and the original model of the oasis area was overvalued. (3) The effect of correction on growth season was greater than that during the non-growth season. Slope had a substantial influence on NPP, and the higher the slope was, the greater the overestimation of the original model. Before correction, sunny slope NPP values were overestimated, whereas, the shady slope NPP values were underestimated.
  • DownLoad:Remote sensing estimation and analysis of net primary productivity (NPP) based on corrected CASA model: A case study of Hexi Corridor.PDF
  • Habitat partitioning between sympatric Golden Pheasant and Temminck's Tragopan at different spatial scales
  • Authors:XIA Shanshan, HU Daming, DENG Yue, ZHONG Xue, BAI Wenke, ZHANG Jindong, WANG Bin and ZHOU Caiquan
  • Abstract:Habitat partitioning is an important approach by sympatric species to reduce interspecific competition intensity and achieve stable coexistence, and thus, has been of interest to community ecologists for many decades. Habitat partitioning between sympatric species is a spatial scale dependent ecological process. Studying interspecific habitat partitioning at different spatial scales is of great significance for understanding the coexistence mechanism comprehensively and improving multi-species joint conservation efforts. From January to August 2018, we conducted field surveys of Golden Pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and Temminck's Tragopan (Tragopan temmminckii) in Baishuihe National Nature Reserve, in Sichuan Province. Using MaxEnt modelling and quadrat sampling methods, we studied habitat partitioning between the two Phasianidae species at two spatial scales-macrohabitat and microhabitat. The results showed that:(1) At the macrohabitat scale, the overlap area of suitable macrohabitat is 44.59 km2, accounting for 58.73% and 44.3% of the macrohabitat area of Golden Pheasant and Temminck's Tragopan, respectively. This spatial distribution pattern indicated that there was no distinct interspecific partitioning between the two species' macrohabitats; (2) Microhabitat is a key scale for habitat partitioning between the two species. Four microhabitat characteristics, including altitude, slope position, distance to the nearest water resource, and tree coverage, varied significantly between species, leading to significant interspecific partitioning of microhabitats; (3) Although the two species showed different degrees and patterns of habitat partitioning at different spatial scales, they maintained consistency in altitude adaptability, tolerance to human disturbance, and dependence on water resources, across the scales. In addition, for multi-Phasianidae-species joint conservation efforts in this area, we made suggestions based on the similarities and differences in habitat requirements of Golden Pheasant and Temminck's Tragopan, such as controlling human disturbance, strengthening awareness and education, and maintaining natural vegetation diversity and their mosaic pattern.
  • DownLoad:Habitat partitioning between sympatric Golden Pheasant and Temminck's Tragopan at different spatial scales.PDF
  • Correlation between the diversity of soil mite communities and environmental factors in Tianshan Forest Park in Xinjiang, China
  • Authors:Pazliya HELIL, Omar ABLIZ and Aliya SIDIK
  • Abstract:To explore the relationships between the diversity of forest soil mite communities and environmental factors in the arid area of northwest China, soil mite communities and environmental factors in 7 different habitats in Tianshan Forest Park of Xinjiang were measured in 2014. The relationships between the diversity of soil mite communities and 10 environmental variables were analyzed by a detrended correspondence analysis (DCA) and redundancy analysis (RDA). A total of 24399 adult specimens of soil mites were captured, belonging to 4 orders, 56 families, and 108 genera (including 9 new records in China), Oribatella was the dominant group. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that there were significant differences in the diversity indices of soil mite communities among the 7 habitats (P < 0.05). The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H) decreased as follows:coniferous forest > nursery garden > broad-leaved forest > shrubbery > conifer-broadleaf forest > meadow steppe > glade grass. RDA indicated that the first and the second axes explained 34.8% and 27.3% of variation in the main community variables of soil mites, respectively, and all the environmental factors explained 82.1% of the variation in the species composition of soil mite communities. A Monte Carlo displacement test showed that there was a significant correlation between the 10 environmental factors and all ordination axes (F=7.355, P=0.002). Altitude, soil water content, and organic matter content had significant effects on the structure and diversity of the mite community.
  • DownLoad:Correlation between the diversity of soil mite communities and environmental factors in Tianshan Forest Park in Xinjiang, China.PDF
  • Effect of conversion of cropland to agroforestry land versus natural grassland on ground-active arthropods in an agro-pasture zone of northern China
  • Authors:ZHAO Juan, LIU Rentao, LIU Jianan, CHANG Haitao, LUO Yaxi and ZHANG Jing
  • Abstract:In Yanchi County, Ningxia, belonging to the agro-pasture transition zone in northern China, an investigation on ground-active arthropods was carried out using a pitfall trapping method in response to the conversion of cropland to agroforestry land versus natural grassland. The results showed:(1) there were 25 groups belonging to 7 orders and 23 families. The dominant groups included Aphodiidae and Formicidae families, which comprised 45.30% of the total individuals. There were 13 common groups occupying 49.17% of the total individuals. The remaining 10 groups were relatively rare, only comprising 5.53% of the total individuals; (2) there were four dominant groups in both crop-and grassland, whereas only one group (i.e., Formicidae) was found in Populus and Caragana agroforestry land. However, the composition of dominant groups were completely different between grassland and cropland habitats. Meanwhile, the dominance of dominant groups decreased remarkably from 86.67% in cropland to 54.90%, 63.16%, and 61.70% in Populus and Caragana agroforestry land and grassland, respectively. The number of common groups and their dominance increased considerably in response to the conversion of cropland to agroforestry land versus natural grassland. No rare groups were found in these four habitats including cropland, Populus and Caragana agroforestry land, and grassland; (3) there was a significant (P < 0.05) effect of the conversion of cropland to agroforestry land versus natural grassland on group richness and the Shannon index, whereas no significant (P > 0.05) effect was found on the total abundance and Simpson index of ground-active arthropods. The group richness and Shannon index of ground-active arthropods were found to be markedly greater (P < 0.05) in grassland, followed by those in Populus and Caragana agroforestry land, and cropland; (4) the Jaccard index regarding ground-active arthropod communities ranged from 0.13 to 0.39, which indicated a dissimilarity between different habitats in cropland, Populus and Caragana agroforestry lands, and grassland; (5) soil moisture and total nitrogen were found to be the key factors driving the structure of ground-active arthropod communities based on the pRDA results. It was concluded that the conversion of cropland to Caragana shrubland and natural grassland could be beneficial for the improvement of soil physical-chemical properties, and the conversion of cropland into natural grassland could indicate a facilitative effect on arthropod biodiversity recovery in the agro-pasture transition zone of northern China.
  • DownLoad:Effect of conversion of cropland to agroforestry land versus natural grassland on ground-active arthropods in an agro-pasture zone of northern China.PDF
  • Seasonal dynamics of macroinvertebrate community structure in stream habitats of the Newxue River
  • Authors:CHEN Jing, JIANG Wanxiang, ZHU Tianshun, CHEN Qing, HE Shishui, WANG Hongmei, WANG Hongkai and PAN Baozhu
  • Abstract:Identifying naturally-regulated spatial and temporal variations of benthic macroinvertebrates is critical for effective assessment and conservation of aquatic ecosystems. A clear identification of spatial and temporal trends of these communities could enhance our understanding of the ecology of macroinvertebrates, definitions of effects of anthropogenic or natural disturbances on lotic communities, and assessment and conservation of lotic biodiversity. In the present study, macroinvertebrate community structure was compared among different seasons in the upper Newxue River in the year 2012 (April, October, and December), where a total of 108 macroinvertebrate taxa belonging to 74 genera and 10 classes were recorded; Cheumatopsyche sp., Orthocladius vaillanti, Paratanytarsus sp., and Neozarelia sp. were the dominant taxa, with relative abundances of 25.1%, 9.8%, 9.0%, and 8.6%, respectively. Dominant species composition was very different across seasons; Cheumatopsyche sp. was the only common taxon in all three seasons. Density, species richness, and Shannon index were significantly higher in April and December than in October; evenness was highest in October. Non-metric Multidimentional Scaling (NMS) analysis was used to compare the community structure among different seasons in the Newxue River and typical reaches, and the results all showed significant differences; seasonal differences in the control reach (reach D) were relatively small. A total of 41 representative species of the Newxue River and typical habitats were separated by indicator species analysis, but no species was isolated from reach B. Two-way cluster analysis further clarified the indicator attributes (unique or highest relative abundance) of the indicator species.
  • DownLoad:Seasonal dynamics of macroinvertebrate community structure in stream habitats of the Newxue River.PDF
  • Effects of isolated-incubation embryos on the growth, development, social behavior, and locomotor performance of Rana zhenhaiensis tadpoles
  • Authors:ZHOU Cuntong, WANG Yuanfei, WANG Haiyan, WEI Li, FAN Xiaoli, DING Guohua and LIN Zhihua
  • Abstract:Embryo-clustering incubation plays an important role in anti-predation, maintaining temperature balance between embryos, and promoting hatching synchrony for anurans. In this study, we investigated the effects of two hatching conditions (isolated-incubation and clustered-incubation) on the growth, development, social behavior, and locomotor performance of Rana zhenhaiensis tadpoles under laboratory conditions. Our results showed that both body length and the Gosner development stage of two-day-old hatchlings in a single-embryo treatment were significantly larger than those of the group-embryo treatment. The results of the ANCOVA (with body length as the covariate) analysis showed that both body width and body mass in the group-embryo treatment were significantly lower than those of the single-embryo treatment. For tadpole activity behavior, the occurrence frequency in the upper and middle water layers in the single-embryo treatments were significantly lower than those of the group-embryo treatment, whereas it was significantly greater in the single-embryo treatments than that of the group-embryo treatment in the lower water layers. The proportion of area occupied by tadpoles, the nearest neighbor distance, and the distance among individuals in the single-embryo treatment were both significantly greater than those of the group-embryo treatment, but the contact frequency between pairwise tadpoles was significantly lower than those of the group-embryo treatment. Regarding locomotor performance, we found that activity duration and activity frequency in the single-embryo treatment were significantly lower than those of the group-embryo treatment. These findings should provide valuable reference data on the growth and development of Rana zhenhaiensis, as well as other anuran species.
  • DownLoad:Effects of isolated-incubation embryos on the growth, development, social behavior, and locomotor performance of Rana zhenhaiensis tadpoles.PDF
  • Effects of habitat desertification on the community composition of lizards
  • Authors:WEI Jinyun, ZENG Zhigao, ZHANG Xiaolei, SHUAI Lingying, TENG Liwei, YAN Wenbo and LIU Zhensheng
  • Abstract:Habitat alteration often has important impacts on animal community and species diversity, but only a few studies have been conducted on how habitat desertification affects community composition of lizards at present. In this study, we investigated the differences in the community composition of lizards among three types of sampling fields with different stages of desertification using the line transect method in Jungar Banner and Dalad Banner in the Erdos region of Inner Mongolia, China. Subsequently, we explored their key influencing factors through canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). The results of our investigations showed that habitat desertification led to significant changes in the community composition of lizards. From the fixed and semi-fixed dunes to mobile dunes, the toad-headed lizard (Phrynocephalus frontalis) was the dominant species of the lizard communities, the multiocellated racerunner (Eremias multiocellata) showed gradual reduction in its population density, and the Mongolian racerunner (E. argus) disappeared in the semi-fixed and mobile dunes of severe desertification. With increasing habitat desertification in the three types of dunes, the population sizes and densities of different lizard species decreased gradually; the richness, Shannon-Weaver diversity index, and Pielou's evenness index of lizard species declined gradually; and the Simpson's dominance index increased significantly. These results indicated that desertification not only simplified the community composition of lizards, but also led to a decrease in lizard species diversity. Furthermore, desertification led to significant changes in the inhabited conditions of lizards. Significant differences were observed in vegetation height, proportion of Artemisia ordosica, bare ground and shelter percentages, and surface soil porosity and water content among the three sampling fields. The CCA results showed that these environmental factors were closely related to the changes in lizard community composition. In general, P. frontalis preferred the areas dominated by bare ground, while E. multiocellata preferred the region with sufficient shelter and loose moist soil. As for E. argus, this lizard species was frequently found in habitats with high vegetation.
  • DownLoad:Effects of habitat desertification on the community composition of lizards.PDF
  • Temporal and spatial evolution of human landscape development in the Fujian delta urban agglomeration in the 21st Century: Based on emergy-GIS approach
  • Authors:WANG Ya', SHUI Wei, YANG Haifeng, QI Xinhua, FAN Bingxiong, JIAN Xiaomei, CHEN Yiping and DU Yong
  • Abstract:In the rapid urbanization processes, urban agglomerations as a senior spatial organization of urban development at a mature stage. Urban agglomerations promote regional societies and economic integration, but can result in conflicts between the natural environment and human activities, particularly because of landscape development intensity. In order to quantify the collisions and reveal the pressure response mechanisms between the natural environment and human resource utilization, this study first opted the Fujian delta urban agglomeration night light data (DMSP/OLS) from 2000, 2005, and 2013 as the fundamental data for an analysis of the realm of human economic activities. And emergy analysis theory was used to account for renewable emergy (solar, wind, geothermal, rainfall chemical emergy, etc.), and non-renewable emergy which were based on statistics in the same year. Integrate renewable and non-renewable emergy to further describe the human landscape development intensity (LDI) at spatio-temporal scales. Accordance with the otherness of human activities intensity with the natural ecological system, the LDI values were divided into 5 levels. The results showed:(1) Over the time scale, the mean values for renewable emergy density in 2000, 2005, and 2013 were 9.42×1016 sej/hm2, 7.25×1016 sej/hm2 and 7.88×1016 sej/hm2, respectively, represented a decreasing trend before increasing again. On the spatial scale, renewable resources demonstrated a increase from the gulf zone to the inland area of annularity in the Fujian delta urban agglomeration, which was particularly evident in 2000; (2) As for the use of non-renewable resources, the investments of local non-renewable emergy value were 4.64×1024 sej, 4.63×1024 sej, and 4.66×1024 sej, respectively in 2000, 2005, and 2013 which was change lightly,while the inflows from the outside emergy were 1.41×1024 sej, 3.18×1024 sej and 5.71×1024 sej in 2000, 2005 and 2013, showing a growing tendency, among which the demand for raw coal was the highest, accounting for 90%; (3) In the spatial distribution of LDI, from the inland area to the ring bay area, LDI levels increased, and disturbances with severe interference were mainly observed in Xiamen, Longhai, Jinjiang, and Shishi. In terms of the temporal distribution, the scope of strength intensity and severe interference gradually increased. This research findings of different disturbance levels will help the government provide of a decision-making foundation for urban construction and planning. Meanwhile, provide a datum reference for the sustainable development of urban agglomerations.
  • DownLoad:Temporal and spatial evolution of human landscape development in the Fujian delta urban agglomeration in the 21st Century: Based on emergy-GIS approach.PDF
  • Spatial difference in the sustainable development level based on extended exergy analysis: Based on the data resources of Chinese 31 provinces and cities
  • Authors:MENG Weiqing, MO Xunqiang, LI Hongyuan, HU Beibei and HE Mengxuan
  • Abstract:Based on the summary of emergy and exergy, an integrated assessment method was established to evaluate regional sustainable development. Three parts included in this method were natural resources, human resources, and environmental cost. A region was regarded as a compound ecosystem combining society, economy, and the environment. It is an improvement of the exergy evaluation method and can be used in the evaluation of sustainable development and green GDP. After the introduction of the assessment method, the extended exergy account of China was calculated. The results showed that:(1) the sustainable development level has gradually improved from 2006 to 2015, which indicates the improvement of China's resource utilization efficiency; (2) From the perspective of resource, the proportion of natural resource inputs was still the highest, but the ratio has gradually decreased. The proportion of the environmental exergy cost has also decreased. Moreover, the proportion of human resources displayed a rapid increase after 2010. This reflected the increasing labor cost. (3) Without considering interregional import and export, the sustainable development level of Beijing is the highest and Tibet is the lowest in terms of the exergy GDP ratio. In the future, it will be necessary to improve the index of this method to evaluate the sustainable development level.
  • DownLoad:Spatial difference in the sustainable development level based on extended exergy analysis: Based on the data resources of Chinese 31 provinces and cities.PDF
  • Study on spatial-temporal differentiation of eological carrying capacity in urban fringe areas at community scale: A case study of Ganjingzi District in Dalian
  • Authors:PEI Ying, YANG Jun, LI Bingxin, LI Xueming and GE Yuting
  • Abstract:Since the 20th century, the rapid growth of population, the over-exploitation of natural resources, and environmental pollution have severely restricted regional social and economic development. There is a gradual realization that the sustainable development of human society is closely related to the health of the ecosystem. The key to solve ecological deterioration is to study the ecological carrying capacity. In the context of rapid urbanization, urban space is constantly expanding to the urban fringe areas. In turn, the ecological problems in the urban fringe areas are prominent. As the "twelfth five-year" period of the rapid advance of Dalian global urbanization, the sustainable development of environment, economy, and society in urban fringe areas will be the focus of Dalian ecological livable city construction. It is of great practical significance to solve and attach importance to the problem of ecological carrying capacity in Ganjingzi District, where urban and rural areas merge. In this milieu, we studied the specific characteristics of ecological carrying capacity of Ganjingzi District. It can provide reference to evaluate and plan ecological carrying capacity in Liaoning Province and the national urban fringe of China. From the national perspective, the spatial expansion of most large-and medium-sized cities is very strong, and the ecological carrying capacity problems in urban fringe areas are widespread. Moreover, the ecological carrying capacity in urban fringe areas is not fully understood and excavated. It has important reference value for decisions pertaining to the development and utilization of urban fringe areas in the future, by combining with the regional development strategy of Ganjingzi District and overall planning goals of Dalian. Herein, the characteristics of ecological carrying capacity of urban fringe areas in China were studied based on the actual situation of Ganjingzi District. We aimed to improve the construction of Dalian and the ecological environment service. From the land use data of 1998 and the remote sensing data of 2003, 2007, and 2013 SPOT5, we used the data on ecological carrying capacity, which is represented by the state space, to calculate the ecological carrying capacity of community in urban fringe areas. The temporal and spatial differences in the ecological carrying capacity of Ganjingzi District of Dalian from 1998 to 2013 were also studied. The results obtained were reasonable. The results showed the following. (1) In terms of time, from the overall trend of ecological carrying capacity of urban fringe areas, the ecological carrying capacity of Ganjingzi District decreased rapidly from 1998 to 2013, and the ecological state showed three different stages. (2) In terms of space, from the level of ecological carrying capacity of urban fringe areas, the ecological carrying capacity of semi-urbanized areas showed the characteristics of interdisciplinary distribution between the eastern and western regions, similarity between the same bearing capacity, and similarity in the bearing capacity. (3) From the perspective of community difference in the ecological state of urban fringe areas, the ecological carrying capacity of the communities within the Ganjingzi District was significantly different. The ecological carrying capacity of the community near the urban area has changed significantly during the last 15 years, and the ecological carrying capacity has decreased rapidly. The ecological carrying capacity of some communities away from the urban area has changed marginally and the ecological environment is well maintained.
  • DownLoad:Study on spatial-temporal differentiation of eological carrying capacity in urban fringe areas at community scale: A case study of Ganjingzi District in Dalian.PDF
  • Study of urban lake landscape ecological security pattern evolution in Wuhan, 1995-2015
  • Authors:CHEN Kunlun, QI Man, WANG Xu and HUANG Gengzhi
  • Abstract:Using the remote sensing images of 1995, 2005, and 2015 as the data sources, this paper explored the temporal and spatial characteristics of the lake landscape pattern in the central district of Wuhan through selected landscape indices and the GIS spatial analysis method. Subsequently, the ecological security evaluation model of the lake landscape was established to reveal the temporal and spatial characteristics of the landscape ecological security pattern of the lake system. The results showed that:(1) In the past 20 years, the total area of the urban lake showed a decreasing trend. The lake area decreased by 28.95km2 at an annual average decreasing rate of 2.4% from 1995 to 2005, and 17.47km2 at 1.8% in the time period 2005-2015. (2) The patch density and fractal dimension of the lake system both showed a decreasing trend, which indicated that the fragmentation of lakes was decreasing, and the shape was becoming simplified. The connectivity index showed a rising trend, which indicated that the lake space structure was becoming more compact. (3) The overall ecological safety of the urban lake system showed a deteriorating trend during the period 1995-2015. Each secondary lake system was influenced by a different degree of urbanization and human disturbance, thus the ecological security evolution of the secondary lake systems showed different characteristics. The rapid expansion of urban built-up areas, the transformation of lakes from agricultural production objects into usable development land, and the real estate industry as the pillar industries were the main driving forces for the lake system to be filled, directly endangering its landscape ecological security and raising public awareness of environmental protection through lake protection initiatives and practices that had a positive impact on the ecological security of the lake landscape. This research on the temporal and spatial characteristics of the lake landscape pattern and driving forces can provide an important support for Wuhan to formulate effective ecological management policies and environmental governance measures.
  • DownLoad:Study of urban lake landscape ecological security pattern evolution in Wuhan, 1995-2015.PDF
  • Spatiotemporal characteristics of an ecological footprint, decoupling effect tendency, and grey prediction in Hefei City
  • Authors:LI Tan, WANG Jing, ZHANG Qingguo, CUI Yuhuan and YAO Zuowen
  • Abstract:The methods of ecological footprint and decoupling effect analysis are effective tools for measuring the status of sustainable development in a region. Taking Hefei as an example of rapid development of urbanization, this article applied the analysis of an ecological footprint and decoupling effect to conduct the quantitative research and dynamic analysis of the ecological status from 2000 to 2014. Additionally, the GM (1, 1) model was established to predict the ecological status of Hefei from 2015 to 2020. The results show that from 2000 to 2014, the per capita ecological footprint of Hefei and the per capita ecological carrying capacity fluctuated. The fluctuation of the ecological deficit was small and increased slightly in general. The ecological footprint of fossil fuels was relatively large in recent years. The space distribution of the ecological footprint and carrying capacity is low in the urban district and high in the suburban district. In the decoupling relationship between environmental pressure and economic growth, the frequencies of strong decoupling and weak decoupling were 42.9% and 28.6%, respectively. The grey model predicts that the per capita ecological footprint from 2015 to 2020 will also increase. This finding is significant for optimizing the industrial structure of Hefei City, implementing different land use patterns, upgrading land patterns, and for controlling population growth moderately.
  • DownLoad:Spatiotemporal characteristics of an ecological footprint, decoupling effect tendency, and grey prediction in Hefei City.PDF
  • Evaluating net ecosystem services value of a polluted lake: A case study of Lake Dianchi
  • Authors:GAO Wei, DU Zhanpeng, YAN Chang'an and CHEN Yan
  • Abstract:Water pollution is a key threat for lake ecosystems in China, and estimating ecosystem services value from the perspective of water pollution is of great significance to understand and restore ecosystem functions of a lake. Since the economic loss due to water pollution is ignored in the current evaluation of ecosystem services value, a new model for estimating the ecosystem services value of a polluted lake is established by incorporating the economic losses from water pollution to improve the conventional methodology. This model was applied to Lake Dianchi to obtain its net ecosystem services value. The results showed that the average ecosystem services value of Lake Dianchi reached 38.655 billion Yuan per year during the period of 2006-2015. Water pollution has altered the structure of ecological value of Lake Dianchi. The water supply service value of the lake dropped to zero, while the atmospheric adjustment, tourism, and water storage emerged as the major contributors. The economic losses caused by water pollution amounted to 1.523 billion Yuan per year, mainly from the costs of ecological water supply and algae removal in the lake. Taking into account both ecosystem services value and economic losses in the lake, the net ecosystem services value was 37.133 billion Yuan per year, accounting for 11.7% of the total local GDP. The rationality of the evaluation results was enhanced by incorporating the water pollution losses into the evaluation of ecosystem services of lake, making this ecosystem services value estimation model more authentic than the conventional methodology to reflect the comprehensive influence of human disturbance on the lake ecosystem.
  • DownLoad:Evaluating net ecosystem services value of a polluted lake: A case study of Lake Dianchi.PDF
  • Emergy analysis of farmer producing system in the transitional zone of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau on Loess Plateau: Tongwei-Weiyuan-Xiahe Transect as an Example
  • Authors:WANG Mengyuan, GAO Xiaoye and HOU Fujiang
  • Abstract:The Tongwei-Weiyuan-Xiahe transect zone is located in the ecological zone of transition ranging form the Loess Plateau to the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. It is a typical agri-pastoral transitional zone of the Northern China. For a long time, ecological and economic problems caused by the inappropriate agricultural production structure have severely restricted the sustainable development of grassland agriculture in this region. From the perspective of emergy, this research aims to (1) provide a new data support and theoretical basis for the adjustment of local agricultural production structure, policy formulation, and agricultural (pastoral) household decision-making in this area and (2) provide a scientific basis for the optimization of regional agricultural production structure. Input-output data of crop production and livestock production of households in the study area have been collected; the emergy value method has been adopted to analyze the input-output structure characteristics of crop production and livestock production, the production decision-making behavior of farmers, and the coupling effect of production systems. By applying the structural equation model (SEM), this research analyzed the energy conversion between components of production systems. It is demonstrated by this research that with the increase of altitude, crop production activities of farmers would decrease and the total output value of crops would also decrease. Although the main inputs and output factors of crop production are the same, the input emergy, output emergy, and emergy yield ratio of the same factor in different parts of the same crop can be varied. Significant differences can be seen from the input, output emergy value, and emergy yield ratio of the same factor at the same location of different crops (P < 0.05). In the input factors of crop production, the emergy value of organic fertilizer made significant contribution in Tongwei and Weiyuan. Agricultural production decision thresholds for crop input and output emergy values decreased from the east to the west, while the crop production scale in Xiahe expanded most rapidly when the initial input of emergy increased. Animal husbandry scale, emergy input, and output of animal production increased from the east to the west. In Tongwei and Weiyuan, wheat straw and alfalfa, as intermediate inputs, achieved 80% emergy contribution rate. In Xiahe, with animal production input factors, the contribution rate of supplement grain emergy value was as high as 90%, while the farm production decision threshold of livestock input and output emergy increased from the east to the west. The emergy yield ratio increased exponentially with the increase of the coupling degree. The speed of emergy yield ratio in both Tongwei and Weiyuan tended to decrease with the increase of the coupling degree, whereas, the speed of emergy yield ratio in Xiahe increased with the increase of the coupling degree. Adjusting the internal proportion of grain, cash crop, and feed products in crop production can strengthen the coupling effect between crop production and livestock production. Thus, optimizing the use of natural grassland and maximizing ecological benefits can be achieved. The threshold point can be used to regulate the production decision-making behavior of farmers and optimize the agricultural production structure in the region.
  • DownLoad:Emergy analysis of farmer producing system in the transitional zone of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau on Loess Plateau: Tongwei-Weiyuan-Xiahe Transect as an Example.PDF
  • Evolutionary game analysis of ecological rehabilitation between central and local governments: From the perspective of fiscal decentralization
  • Authors:PAN Hesi, LI Ying and LIU Hongzhi
  • Abstract:Ecological environment is important, but degrades seriously, and the extensive mode of economic development can affect human well-being and sustainable development. It is highly significant to study the interaction mechanisms between the central and local governments because they are the main governing bodies of the ecological environment rehabilitation. Based on the background of fiscal decentralization, we constructed an evolutionary game model between the central and local governments, using the profit function to explore their behavioral characteristics as well as influencing factors. According to the replicator of dynamic equation, this study analyzes the behavior evolution laws of participants and uses the MATLAB simulation tools to analyze the evolutionarily stable strategies of the two groups and their convergence trend under different situations. Our results show that the central and local governments represent "economic men" to a certain extent. The stable equilibrium point depends on the net income of local government when they choice the strategy of "strictly implement", and the net income of central government when they choice the strategy of "strictly regulation". The key indicators include the implementation degree, costs, ecological and economic indicators' weight coefficient of the local government's ecological rehabilitation, as well as the central government's regulatory supervision, costs, punishment, and other factors. The above analysis puts forward the countermeasures, such as fiscal decentralization during the innovation of the local performance evaluation mechanism, following comparative development advantages, and widening of the regulatory channels of the central and local governments to guide the improvement of the efficiency of ecological rehabilitation.
  • DownLoad:Evolutionary game analysis of ecological rehabilitation between central and local governments: From the perspective of fiscal decentralization.PDF
  • Temporal-spatial dynamic change characteristics of soil moisture in Ebinur Lake Basin from 2008-2014
  • Authors:WANG Jinjie, DING Jianli and ZHANG Zhe
  • Abstract:It is difficult to express the true soil moisture temporal and spatial variation in traditional methods, because it always reflects a certain spatial resolution or discrete temporal pattern, which is not a continuous process. In this paper, we use SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool)model and multi-source remote sensing data to solve the problems caused by the effects of spatial and temporal scales of soil moisture monitoring. Explore the scientific regional scale and long-time-series soil moisture simulation method, and use the simulation results analysis soil moisture in different time and space in study area. The results showed the following:(1) soil moisture over the entire region was continued decline from 2008-2014. The major factors affecting this trend are temperature, precipitation, and human activities. (2) The distribution of soil moisture is affected by precipitation, temperature, and land cover. The distribution of soil moisture is characterized by decreasing from the mountainous area to the plains, and in the following order:woodland > agricultural land > grassland > sparse vegetation. (3) In the past 10 years, the area with low soil moisture shifted from the northern mountainous plains to the eastern part, southeastern plains, and southern mountains, one of the most obvious change was eastern part. (4) The variation in soil moisture in the four seasons was significant. Soil moisture in spring and autumn were affected by rainfall and temperature, and that in winter was affected by the snow melt and temperature. The sub-basin soil moisture change were consistent in same season in different years.
  • DownLoad:Temporal-spatial dynamic change characteristics of soil moisture in Ebinur Lake Basin from 2008-2014.PDF
  • Characteristics of cotton stalk-char and its effect on organic carbon mineralization in grey desert soil
  • Authors:TANG Guangmu, XU Wanli, GU Meiying, YAO Hongyu, PU Shenghai and HU Kelin
  • Abstract:Biochar can improve soil fertility and reduce greenhouse gas emission, but its effect on soil organic carbon (SOC) mineralization is controversial. In this study, we used gray desert soil of Xinjiang as a case study and cotton stalk-char (BC) produced using cotton straw at 300℃ and 600℃ was used as a test material. Different proportions of BC were added to dry soil 0 (0BC), 0.1% (0.1%BC), 0.5% (0.5%BC), 1.0% (1.0%BC), 2.0% (2.0%BC), 100.0% (100%BC) (w/w), and then incubated at 25℃ under 75% saturated soil moisture condition for 100 d. The effects of BC on the SOC mineralization were evaluated. The results showed the following. 1) The BC with high temperature carbonization had smoother surface with neatly-arranged porous structure, the porosity and specific surface area increased, and the aromatization degree was enhanced. 2) A significant power function correlation was observed between the SOC mineralization rates over time (P < 0.05). Compared with the biochar produced at 600℃, the accumulated amount of mineralization and cumulative mineralization rate of SOC with biochar produced at 300℃ increased by 318% and 87.06% respectively. High temperature carbonization inhibits SOC mineralization. Except in the 0.1% BC treatment, the cumulative quantity of SOC mineralization with the addition of biochar produced at 300℃ increased by 3.05%-35.28% compared with that of the control treatments, and it increased with the content of BC added. On the contrary, the amount of accumulative SOC mineralization decreased by 6.11%-10.79% with the biochar produced at 600℃. 3) The positive priming effect during the early stage of incubation (0-20 d) on the native organic carbon mineralization of gray desert soil (except the 0.1% BC treatment). Whereas, the biochar produced at 300℃ showed negative priming effects during the late stage of incubation. However, it showed a negative priming effect throughout the incubation period. A similar trend was observed for the treatments with biochar produced at 600℃, and the positive priming effect was negligible during the early stage of incubation (0-5 d). Therefore, the biochar produced from cotton shell at low temperatures can enhance the SOC mineralization, whereas BC with high temperature carbonization inhibits SOC mineralization. The SOC accumulation can be increased with the addition of BC to soil due to negative priming effects.
  • DownLoad:Characteristics of cotton stalk-char and its effect on organic carbon mineralization in grey desert soil.PDF
  • Effects of nitrogen fertilization combined with biochemical inhibitors on leaching characteristics of soil nitrogen in yellow clayey soil
  • Authors:ZHOU Xuan, WU Lianghuan, DONG Chunhua and JIA Lei
  • Abstract:The objective of this study was to determine the effects of combined biochemical inhibitors on the transformation and leaching loss of NO3--N and NH4+-N from urea-based fertilizer in yellow clayey soil. A soil column leaching experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to observe nitrogen (N) transformation and leaching loss following the application of urea and UAN (300 kg N/hm2) with a urease inhibitor N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), a nitrification inhibitor 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl) pyridine (CP), or both. The results showed that the contents of NH4+-N and NO3--N from the leacheate of urea and UAN both rose first and then fell with different peak times. The differences in the leaching loss of NH4+-N and NO3--N across treatments increased over time. NBPT can slow urea hydrolysis, and effectively inhibit the generation of NH4+-N to retard the peak time and reduce NH4+-N loss. CP can effectively inhibit the transformation of NH4+-N to NO3--N to reduce NO3--N loss. Compared with the application of NBPT and CP alone, their combination exhibited a synergistic inhibition effect on N leaching loss in yellow clayey soil, namely not only did it slow down urea hydrolysis and maintain high NH4+-N content in the soil, but it also reduced NO3--N content in the leacheate. At the end of the incubaton (72 days), the leaching loss of NO3--N, NH4+-N, and mineral N, and nitrification rate from UAN treatment were higher than those from the U treatment by 34.39%, 5.32%, 31.72%, and 15.71%, repectively. Compared with the U treatment, U+NBPT, U+CP, and U+NBPT+CP treatments significantly reduced the leaching loss of NO3--N by 15.58%, 114.77%, and 73.45%, respectively. Compared with UAN treatment, UAN+NBPT, UAN+CP, and UAN+NBPT+CP treatments significantly reduced leaching loss by 15.88%, 54.87%, and 37.46%, respectively. The leaching loss of NO3--N from different treatments ranked UAN > UAN+NBPT > U > UAN+NBPT+CP > U+NBPT > UAN+CP > U+NBPT+CP > U+CP > CK. Within a certain range of fertilizer rate, adding NBPT and CP alone or both can reduce NO3--N leaching loss in yellow clayey soil. Equation models were used to describe the relationship between NO3--N leaching loss (y) and time (x). The linear equation (y=ax+b) fit well, a and b values in adding inhibitor treatments were obviously different. In conclusion, application of NBPT in yellow clayey soil combined with CP can significantly reduce the leaching loss of soil NO3--N and N leaching risk, to improve fertilizer use efficiency.
  • DownLoad:Effects of nitrogen fertilization combined with biochemical inhibitors on leaching characteristics of soil nitrogen in yellow clayey soil.PDF
  • Effect of carbon tax policy on agricultural land use change and its carbon emission
  • Authors:MA Xiaozhe, WANG Yaqing, LIU Changxin, ZHU Yongbin, WANG Zheng and YU Fanglin
  • Abstract:Agricultural ecosystems can act not only as a carbon source, but also as a carbon sink. Its importance in mitigating carbon emission has been widely recognized by the international community.Compared with advanced technologies, carbon tax, subsidies, and other economic measures are considered to be relatively simple and feasible to govern climate change. Based on integrated assessment model GOPer-GC (Governance and development policy simulator on global climate model), we constructed international carbon tax scenarios and simulated their effects on agricultural land cover and its carbon emissions from 2008 to 2050. The simulation results showed that cumulative carbon emission due to global agricultural land use change in scenarios 2 and 3 was 49.6 and 23.1 GtC, respectively, which were significantly lower than that in the baseline scenario. This indicated that instead of carbon tax income as a general revenue, carbon tax income as a subsidy for the agricultural sector can reduce carbon emissions of the agricultural land use change. Additionally, the subsidy policy, considering that the forestry sector gets more carbon tax income than farming and animal husbandry sector, significantly reduces carbon emission due to land use change, mainly due to the increase in the conversion of crop land and grassland to woodland. China's carbon sinks, contributed from the conversion of crop land and grassland to woodland, increased obviously in scenario 3. In this scenario, converting cropland and grassland to woodland in China contributed 1.7 GtC and 3.7 GtC of carbon sink respectively. Therefore, for most regions, such as China, the United States and India, increasing the subsidy of the forestry sector will be an effective way to mitigate agricultural carbon emission due to land use change. In the EU, Japan, East Asia, Malaysia, Indonesia, Russia, and Eastern Europe, the same subsidy in crops, livestock, and forestry resulted in a relatively obvious reduction in emission.
  • DownLoad:Effect of carbon tax policy on agricultural land use change and its carbon emission.PDF
  • Characteristics and impact factors of methane emission in coastal wetland of the Liaohe estuary
  • Authors:YUAN Xiaomin, YANG Jisong, LIU Kai, ZHENG Dongmei, ZHENG Jiayu and LIU Qiang
  • Abstract:A monthly investigation of methane flux in Phragmites australis wetland, Saline seepweed wetland, and mudflat at Liaohe Estuary was carried out from June to November in 2016, using an enclosed chamber technique. Simultaneously, environmental factors, including soil temperature, redox potential (Eh), electrical conductivity (EC), and pH values were measured to evaluate its influence on methane emission. The results showed that:(i) the methane flux in the three types of wetland showed obvious seasonal variations, which is higher in summer than that in spring and autumn; (ii) the methane flux was 0.447-10.40 mg m-2 h-1 with a mean of 3.699 ±3.679 in P. australis wetland. During ebb tides, methane flux was 0.045-0.509 and 0.016-0.593 mg m-2 h-1 with a mean of 0.165 ±0.156 and 0.198 ±0.191 mg m-2 h-1 in the Saline seepweed wetland and mudflat, respectively. The methane flux was significantly different among the three wetland types (P < 0.01), which is highest in P. australis, and followed by mudflat, Saline seepweed wetland; (iii) during flood tide, the methane flux ranged from 0.009 to 0.353 mg m-2 h-1 and 0.018 to 0.335 mg m-2 h-1 with means of 0.119 ±0.132 and 0.131 ±0.103 mg m-2 h-1 in Saline seepweed wetland and mudflat, respectively. The mean fluxes of methane during flood tides were significantly lower than that of ebb tide (P < 0.01); and (iv) furthermore, methane fluxes negatively correlated with the EC values in the three wetland types (P < 0.01). The results indicate that tide and salinity are the key factors to influence methane emission from the coastal wetlands of Liaohe estuary.
  • DownLoad:Characteristics and impact factors of methane emission in coastal wetland of the Liaohe estuary.PDF
  • Effects of ecological restoration on soil organic carbon in post-mining lands
  • Authors:YAN Meifang, WANG Lu, HAO Cunzhong, LIU Yang, CUI Feifei, REN Hongrui and ZHANG Jianbiao
  • Abstract:Coal mining has caused severe damage to vegetation and soil, leading to a sharp degradation or entire loss of the carbon sequestration function of the original ecosystems. Furthermore, accumulated coal-gangues are easily oxidized or combusted, which has resulted in huge emissions of CO2. Ecological restoration in post-mining areas is of great significance to curb regional carbon emission, and to mitigate greenhouse effects. In this study, the effects of ecological restoration on changes in soil organic carbon were reviewed, including the effects of restoration type and time; restoration measures for soil organic carbon and its active fractions, and the main factors influencing carbon sequestration were also summarized. The results showed that soil organic carbon increased significantly through vegetation restoration and organic matter addition and was positively correlated with restoration time. The results suggested that degraded lands in post-mining areas have great potential for carbon sequestration by adopting suitable restoration measures. In the future, research on the mechanism of carbon sequestration in soil aggregates and the active fractions of soil carbon should be prioritized because such studies could provide references for the enhancement of carbon sequestration function in degraded areas during restoration processes.
  • DownLoad:Effects of ecological restoration on soil organic carbon in post-mining lands.PDF
  • Progress of the effects of fire disturbance on forest soil water repellency
  • Authors:LIU Falin, CHENG Xianwei, ZENG Suping and PENG Zaozhen
  • Abstract:Soil water repellency (SWR) is a phenomenon that occurs when the soil particles are unable or hard to be moistened by water. It refers to the inability of water to wet or infiltrate a dry soil, and this phenomenon has been documented in a wide range of vegetation types and climates, especially in soil affected by wildfire. SWR is affected by biotic and abiotic factors, such as water, temperature, alternation of dry and wet seasons, soil texture, vegetation type, etc. Fire disturbance is one of the important factors influencing the SWR of forest ecological system. It enhances the SWR of the forest soil, reducing the permeability and intercept body and increasing the surface runoff and soil erosion. Numerous studies have suggested that SWR is the primary cause of reduced infiltration rates of soils after burning. In order to understand the frontier of research in the field, this paper summarizes the effects of fire disturbance on SWR. Based on the recent achievements, the historical development of the issue was reviewed briefly. Meanwhile, its physical mechanism, influencing factors, as well as its potential effects on eco-hydrological processes before and after the fire, are discussed. The main aims of the future studies on this issue are also pointed out. The runoff and soil erosion increased significantly after forest fire, but it is difficult to predict the quantitative influence of SWR on runoff and erosion after the fire. Therefore, studying the effect of SWR of different scales and natural rainfall after the fire experiments on surface runoff and soil erosion and long-term observation are recommended as the future research direction and emphasis.
  • DownLoad:Progress of the effects of fire disturbance on forest soil water repellency.PDF
  • Progress of several crucial aspects in the biological and ecological research on the Chinese caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis
  • Authors:XU Meng, XU Ming and LI Rengqiang
  • Abstract:The Chinese caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis, is well known for its great value in medical use and healthcare. As a consequence, research on the biological characteristics of O. sinensis and sustainable utilization of this valuable resource have received substantial efforts. There are several aspects in the biological and ecological research on O. sinensis that are particularly important, including the (1) pathways and mechanisms of how Hepialidae larvae are infected by O. sinensis; (2) predominant factors that regulate O. sinensis stroma formation and development; (3) O. sinensis genetic diversity and genomics; (4) microbial communities that inhabit the natural Chinese caterpillar fungus and their interaction with O. sinensis; and (5) impact of climate change on O. sinensis habitats in the Tibetan Plateau under global warming. The present review summarized the progress that has been achieved regarding these crucial aspects in the current research. Certain limitations in the current research that are not well understood or inadequately investigated were highlighted to motivate the biological and ecological research of O. sinensis in the future. Based on the thorough review, it was proposed that to maintain the sustainable utilization of natural Chinese cordyceps, the following aspects should be considered a priority in the future:(1) the development of advanced equipment and experimental techniques for in situ observation of colonization and sexual reproduction processes of O. sinensis; (2) determining the mechanisms underlying environmental fitness and pathogenicity of O. sinensis at the genomic level using molecular technology and artificial cultivation; and (3) predicting the impact of climate change on the distribution and yield of Chinese cordyceps by long-term field observation in combination with ecological models.
  • DownLoad:Progress of several crucial aspects in the biological and ecological research on the Chinese caterpillar fungus, Ophiocordyceps sinensis.PDF
  • Research advances in cultural ecosystem services - An analysis based on Web of Science
  • Authors:
  • Abstract:With the development of society and economy, human beings have shown a fervent desire for spiritual products. Given that ecosystems have cultural services, the research interest on this aspect has been increasing in recent years, which is reflected in the number of published papers. This paper attempts to clarify the research context of international ecosystem cultural services by compiling literature and materials related to ecosystem services and applying statistical analyses. Using the Web of Science core collection database, 1530 papers were analyzed. This analysis led to the identification of research trends, time period characteristics, author distribution, institutional distribution, and periodical distribution of these sample papers. The results show that the research of cultural ecosystem service gradually evolved from the discipline of ecology to an interdisciplinary research field, including ecology, geography, management science, and sociology. In the near future, research work on cultural ecosystem services will focus on six major directions, which are monetary evaluation, management and application, index system, value mapping, recreation function, and aesthetic function of cultural ecosystem services.
  • DownLoad:Research advances in cultural ecosystem services - An analysis based on Web of Science.PDF

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