首页关于本刊影响因子及获奖投稿须知订阅及广告专辑与专题学术会议绿色发表通道优秀论文 
   
Other Issues:  
Volume 39,Issue 1
  • Research on the progress of the eco-compensation mechanism in China
  • Authors:WU Le, KONG Deshuai and JIN Leshan
  • Abstract:Establishment and improvement of the ecological protection compensation mechanism ("eco-compensation") is an important measure for promoting an ecological civilization in China. Through a comprehensive analysis of eco-compensation cases throughout the country, we found that the program's implementation process accelerated significantly after the 18th CPC National Congress, with a dramatic increase in both the number of cases and the amount of capital invested. However, problems persist, such as the single source of compensation funds and the uneven development of ecological protection compensation practices in different fields and regions. Broadening the sources of compensation funds, accelerating the improvement of market-based ecological protection compensation mechanisms, promoting the practical exploration of the more "backward" fields and regions, and improving the ecological compensation legislation are all extremely meaningful steps for further improving China's eco-compensation mechanism.
  • DownLoad:Research on the progress of the eco-compensation mechanism in China.PDF
  • The ecological asset accounting method study: A case study of Qinghai Province
  • Authors:SONG Changsu, XIAO Yi, BO Wenjing, XIAO Yang, ZOU Ziying and OUYANG Zhiyun
  • Abstract:Ecological assets are an important part of natural resource assets. The purpose of protecting and restoring an ecosystem is to increase ecological assets and to enhance ecosystem services. Qinghai Province is an ecologically important region with rich ecological assets. Governments have attached great importance to the construction of ecological civilization in Qinghai Province. It is crucial to assess the effectiveness of ecological protection and restoration projects for further protection of ecological assets in Qinghai Province. In this study, we created a comprehensive assessment of ecological assets and their changes in Qinghai Province (including key ecological function areas and non-key ecological function areas) over the past 15 years by accounting ecological asset areas, evaluating ecosystem quality, and creating an ecological asset index. Grassland assets are the main ecological assets in Qinghai Province, and we found 32.1% of the total grassland area to be of good quality. The quality of forest ecological assets is polarized, that of shrub ecological assets is poor, and that of natural wetland ecological assets is generally good. In the past 15 years, we found that the area of ecological assets has changed slightly, the quality of natural ecological assets increased significantly, and the ecological asset index increased steadily in Qinghai Province. The area of natural ecological assets in the province increased by 3239.3 km2, and within this area, natural wetlands increased by 15.1%. The area of natural ecological assets above a good grade increased by 61920.1 km2, representing an increase of 55.5%. Among them, the area of key ecological function zones increased by 48621.9 km2 and non-key ecological function zones increased by 13298.3 km2. The ecological assets comprehensive index of Qinghai Province increased from 240.37 to 278.22, representing an increase of 15.7%. A series of ecological protection and restoration projects such as Grain to Green Program, ecological compensation for wetlands, ecological protection and construction projects in Sanjiangyuan Nature Reserve, and ecological environmental protection and comprehensive treatment projects in Qinghai Lake Basin played a positive role in improving the quantity and quality of natural ecological assets in Qinghai Province. Changes in ecological assets in Qinghai Province are also affected by climatic factors. Climate change has led to an increase in the area of natural wetland ecological assets and a reduction in the area of grassland ecological assets. At the same time, the increase in temperature has increased the quality of forest, shrub, and grassland ecological assets.
  • DownLoad:The ecological asset accounting method study: A case study of Qinghai Province.PDF
  • Evaluation of the incorporation of gross ecosystem product into performance appraisals for ecological compensation
  • Authors:JIN Leshan, LIU Jinhong and KONG Deshuai
  • Abstract:With the promotion of ecological civilization in China, since the 18th CPC National Congress, eco-compensation practices have advanced rapidly. Evaluation of implementation effectiveness is the core issue to ensure continuous improvement in the efficiency of the eco-compensation mechanism. This study analyzes the necessity and feasibility of incorporating gross ecosystem product (GEP) into the performance appraisal for ecological compensation. The existing performance appraisal mechanisms need to be further improved. The performance appraisal of eco-compensation based on GEP is a direct appraisal based on the output of ecosystem services. An appraisal based on GEP can unlock the innovation potential of subjects that receive compensation from the supply of ecosystem services. GEP has less distortions of the evaluation of ecosystem services, and thus, can be used as an optimization index for county-level environmental appraisals. However, we cannot include GEP in the performance appraisal system of eco-compensation, as this would deny the role of the performance appraisal system based on types of activities. Several policy recommendations are proposed based on these findings, such as organically combining GEP with the existing performance appraisal system, exploring the establishment of comprehensive eco-compensation mechanisms, and reducing the loss of eco-compensation efficiency through the improvement of appraisal and incentive mechanisms
  • DownLoad:Evaluation of the incorporation of gross ecosystem product into performance appraisals for ecological compensation.PDF
  • Green Gold Index accounting for Quzhou City in Zhejiang Province
  • Authors:CHENG Cuiyun, GE Chazhong, DU Yanchun and LI Jiedan
  • Abstract:By virtue of ecological advantages, Quzhou City is an important ecological shield for Zhejiang Province. The Green Gold Index (GGI) can measure and evaluate the results of transformation of ‘lucid waters and lush mountains’ (LWLW) to ‘gold and silver mountains’ (GSM) and help Quzhou City to better implement the theory of ‘lucid waters and lush mountains are invaluable assets.’ The GGI refers to the ratio of gross ecosystem product (GEP) to gross domestic product (GDP). According to the results of this study, the GGI for Quzhou City reached 3.04 in 2015, indicating that the value of ecological resources of the city is far greater than previously thought. There is huge potential for transforming ecological factors into production factors, and consequently turn ecological wealth into material wealth. In terms of regional comparison, Quzhou City presents a much higher GGI than the national average (1.01), and 6, 22, and 10 times higher than Zhejiang Province, Shanghai, and Jiangsu Province in the Yangtze River Delta, respectively. Therefore, Quzhou City secures a prominent lead and has an obvious advantage over the neighboring Anhui and Jiangxi provinces. This study suggests that Quzhou City should actively harness its rich ecological resources and open transformation channels from LWLW to GSM, so as to create win-win benefits among economic, ecological, and social dimensions.
  • DownLoad:Green Gold Index accounting for Quzhou City in Zhejiang Province.PDF
  • Distinct eco-compensation standards for ecological forests in Beijing
  • Authors:SHENG Wenping, ZHEN Lin and XIAO Yu
  • Abstract:Forest ecosystem, the most important ecosystem in Beijing, covers 35% of the administrative area and plays a key role in the maintenance of urban ecological security by providing many fundamental ecosystem services to local and surrounding communities. In Beijing, co-compensation has been gradually considered a potentially valuable tool for policymakers to better address ecological conservation and environmental issues. Eco-compensation is distributed by policymakers to manage natural resources and to address the misalignments between socially and privately optimal levels of ecosystem service provisioning. Ecological forests play a key role in the maintenance of ecological security in Beijing, and two eco-compensation programs that target forest ecosystems have been implemented in Beijing since 2004. These eco-compensation programs for forest construction have contributed to the equal distribution of ecological and economic benefits between protectors and beneficiaries. However, these eco-compensation programs have issues in payment standards for several reasons. First, the current standards are based on the fiscal capability of the government rather than the magnitudes of forest ecosystem service value. Second, a one-size-fits-all standard is used for eco-compensation programs, which cannot reflect the contributions of different ecosystem services. Third, location diversity indicators are not taken into account in the current payment standard. To address these issues, a more reasonable and scientific determination of payment standards was established in this study. Because hydrological regulation is the primary sub-type of ecosystem services supported by the mountain ecological forests in Beijing, the economic values of hydrological regulation services in each sublot were calculated to represent the ecological forest ecosystem service value in the mountain areas in our study. The different geographical locations create different social and economic development dimensions in forest ecosystem services. Even if the ecosystem service values were the same, the relative importance of the forest ecosystem service would be different because of the different geographical locations. Therefore, three location indicators for the ecological forest sublot were considered for the determination of eco-compensation standards in this study, namely, eco-environment indicator, function-oriented zone indicator, and relative scarcity indicator. The value of the eco-environment indicator was based on the ecological importance level and ecological fragility level of each forest sublot. Function-oriented zone indicator value was assigned to each sublot according to the type of function zone in which the sublot was located. The relative scarcity indicator value was assigned according to the population density of each district. On the basis of the recommended eco-compensation standards, the eco-compensation standard was from 176 to 2168 RMB/hm2. The first and second highest eco-compensation standards were in Yanqing and Huairou, and the two lowest ones were in Central Town and Fangshan. The average value of the eco-compensation standard of Beijing was about 1265 RMB/hm2, which isclose to the total standards of the current two eco-compensation programs in Beijing. The results of our study would help in understanding the exact forest ecosystem service value and make recommendations for reasonable and feasible eco-compensation standards of mountain ecological forests. The recommended eco-compensation standards in this study, which reflect both the ecosystem services value and relative importance of forest ecosystem services on the basis of geographical location, would help policy and decision makers to design dynamic and diversified eco-compensation schemes for future eco-compensation initiatives with higher chances of success and contribute to the conservation and sustainability of forest resources.
  • DownLoad:Distinct eco-compensation standards for ecological forests in Beijing.PDF
  • Research on spatial selection of Ecological Compensation Areas: using the transfer payment of national key ecological function areas of Qinghai Province as an example
  • Authors:LIU Jinhong, KONG Deshuai and JIN Leshan
  • Abstract:Research on the spatial selection of the ecological compensation area is the basis of establishing ecological compensation mechanism, whereas there is scarce research regarding it in China. A reasonable method for selecting ecological compensation regional space could provide a reliable quantitative basis for the selection of priority areas of ecological compensation. Considering the ecological system service value and the economic development level of each district and county in Qinghai Province, this paper, based on the use of the ArcGIS tool and applying the method of "eco-efficiency targeting" and "priority of ecological compensation", researched the priority level of ecological compensation in all districts and counties of Qinghai Province. The research results showed that the method of "eco-efficiency targeting" is suitable for the spatial selection of the ecological compensation mechanism based on elements, such as forests and grasslands, whereas the method of "priority of ecological compensation" is more suitable for the spatial selection of regional ecological compensation. According to the method of "priority of ecological compensation", the priority compensation areas of transfer payment of national key ecological function areas of Qinghai Province are mainly concentrated in the south. The secondary compensation areas are mainly located in the middle part. The potential compensation areas are mainly in the northeast of Qinghai Province. Compared with the fund allocations to the key ecological function areas of Qinghai Province, many districts and counties in the Haixi state have not received the corresponding compensations, and the original method of fund allocation pays more attention to people's livelihood rather than the environment. In the spatial selection of ecological compensation areas, we should combine it with the ecological comprehensive compensation to put forward a reasonable ecological compensation performance appraisal system and improve the people's livelihood based on protecting the environment.
  • DownLoad:Research on spatial selection of Ecological Compensation Areas: using the transfer payment of national key ecological function areas of Qinghai Province as an example.PDF
  • Ecological compensation standards for paddy fields based on the control of chemical fertilizer application-Lishui District, Nanjing as an example
  • Authors:LÜ Yuefeng, XIE Li, SUN Hua and WANG Shizhong
  • Abstract:Ecological compensation is a public policy tool that can be used to cope with excessive fertilizer application and agricultural non-point source pollution; the amount of compensation significantly influences the actual level of policy implementation. This study examined government compensation for a reduction in the amount of fertilizer applied by rice farmers in Nanjing. We used cost income, energy value analysis, and double-boundary contingent valuation methods and constructed a fertilizer reduction compensation standard using the dual perspectives of the government and the farmers.. The results showed that from the perspective of environmental cost quantification resulting from chemical fertilizer pollution, the reference value for application of pure fertilizer to rice cropping systems in Nanjing is 268.75 kg hm-2 a-1, which is still approximately 14% lower than the actual amount of fertilizer applied 312.48 kg hm-2 a-1 in 2017 in Nanjing. The vast majority of growers were willing to reduce the amount of fertilizer to the reference dosage on the premise of accepting an ecological average compensation standard of 882.49 yuan hm-2 a-1. Finally, rice growers with higher education, larger households, and higher fertilizer input costs tended to accept ecological compensation as well as related obligations, whereas older male farmers and those with larger planting areas tended to be more cautious about reducing fertilizer use. Our results provide theoretical support for the prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution in Nanjing and the formulation of an ecological compensation standard for paddy fields. In the actual compensation and distribution process, the single compensation standard cannot guarantee fairness and justice and it is necessary to establish a hierarchical ecological compensation system that is linked to the crop planting type and the effects of chemical fertilizer reduction. Farmers should reduce the input of chemical fertilizer as much as possible.
  • DownLoad:Ecological compensation standards for paddy fields based on the control of chemical fertilizer application-Lishui District, Nanjing as an example.PDF
  • Research on the participatory assessment development evaluation of grassland ecological compensation policy based on “regulation balance”
  • Authors:QIU Li and TANG Jisi
  • Abstract:From the perspective of the holistic governance theory, the dimensions of regulation and governance in the implementation of the grassland ecological compensation policy (GECP) were thoroughly analyzed in this study, which deduced that GECP is a "regulation balance" oriented policy, and a comprehensive evaluation for GECP's implementation effect is necessary. Thereafter, the method of "participatory assessment development" evaluation (PADev) is recommended. Based on the case study of a pure husbandry village in the typical grassland of Xilinguole, Inner Mongolia, this study presented the application of the PADev method in detail and obtained comprehensive evaluation conclusions with both "formative" and "inter-subjectivity" focuses. To verify the suitability of PADev for the evaluation of GECP, this study further presented the other evaluations based on the ecological survey and sampling social survey from the perspective of a "meta-evaluation", as a supplement to the "progressive" evaluation of the PADev method. Case studies showed that the status and role of GECP is embodied in the historic development and structural changes of "grass-livestock-human" (up to 35 years, starting from the livestock contracting policy in 1983). It is difficult to directly determine the causal relationship between the ecological benefits of GECP from the present situation. However, from the perspective of path dependence and future development based on institutional change, the government-led GECP will actively promote herdsmen's self-integration and adaption to the modern market, as well as the convergence between "Ecological livestock carrying capacity" and "Actual livestock carrying capacity".
  • DownLoad:Research on the participatory assessment development evaluation of grassland ecological compensation policy based on “regulation balance”.PDF
  • Study on the ecological compensation mechanism of a watershed based on an urban agglomeration by using the Yangtze River basin as an example
  • Authors:CAO Liping, ZHOU Fenqi and WU Meng
  • Abstract:The design of ecological compensation mechanisms in urban agglomerations of watersheds that span a large spatial range are similar. They are based on factors including similar geographical locations, nature resource endowments, and social economic structures. However, the design of ecological compensation mechanisms among different urban agglomerations is quite different based on the factors above. Moreover, the study of individual urban ecosystems and their collaborative management cannot fundamentally solve regional (including river basins in an urban agglomeration and urban agglomerations in a river basin), ecological, or environmental problems. From the perspective of urban agglomeration, the study of regional coordinated development can improve the degree of cooperation among cities and coordination of policy formulation. It can also provide new ideas for the study of river basin ecological/environmental governance and the balance of supply and demand for ecosystem services. Taking the Yangtze River basin as an example, we studied the ecological compensation mechanism of typical urban agglomerations, compared the differences and similarities in the design of ecological compensation mechanisms between different urban agglomerations, and formed the design innovation for the ecological compensation mechanism of the Yangtze River basin. Finally, we provide policy suggestions for innovating the long-term mechanism of ecological compensation based on urban agglomeration and coordinating the system of ecological and environmental protection for urban agglomerations.
  • DownLoad:Study on the ecological compensation mechanism of a watershed based on an urban agglomeration by using the Yangtze River basin as an example.PDF
  • Ecosystem service value and its spatial response to human interference on the basis of terrain gradient in Gannan region, China
  • Authors:XU Nuanyin, SUN Siqi, XUE Dayuan and GUO Luo
  • Abstract:Gannan region, an important ecological barrier in southern China, is a typical mountain-hill area in Jiangxi Province, China, and its ecological protection is of great significance. In this study, using data of 5-year intervals from 1990 to 2015, land-use types and ecosystem service value in Gannan region were evaluated on the basis of the terrain gradient by using remote-sensing, geographic information technology, and spatial statistical methods. In addition, human interference and spatial correlation with ecosystem service value were investigated using the grid method. The results showed that (1) the proportion of forests increased as the terrain gradient increased, and the other types of land use have gradually decreased, especially forest and farmland. (2) The ecosystem service value in the Gannan region declined over the study period, and per unit area ecosystem service value reduced as the terrain gradient increased. Especially, terrain gradient 1, where the terrain index is between 0.2164 and 0.6826, was extremely decreased. (3) Spatial analysis of human interference grading showed that 90% of high human interference was distributed in the area of terrain gradient 1, where the terrain features are low altitude and low slope, and only 10% were scattered in other gradients. (4) Significant spatial aggregation distributions were observed between ecosystem service value and human interference in Gannan region, and the high-low aggregation was mainly distributed in 8 counties, namely, Dayu County, Nankang City, Ganzhou City, Xinfeng County, Ruijin City, Huichang County, Xingguo County, and Yudu County. The low-high aggregation was mainly distributed in Chongyi County and Shangyou County. The ecosystem service value and its spatial response to human interference were analyzed on the basis of the terrain gradient in Gannan region, and the results provided a theoretical basis and decision support mechanism for the rational layout and protection of ecological land in the hilly areas of southern China.
  • DownLoad:Ecosystem service value and its spatial response to human interference on the basis of terrain gradient in Gannan region, China.PDF
  • The evaluation of the watershed ecological compensation standard of ecosystem service value: a case of Weihe watershed upstream
  • Authors:WANG Yiqi and LI Guoping
  • Abstract:The report of the 19th National Congress clearly states that we should improve the system of recuperation of rivers and lakes, and establish a diversified ecological compensation mechanism. The determination of watershed ecological compensation standards is a key element in establishing a scientific watershed ecological compensation mechanism. For the calculation, few scholars consider that the compensation standards should eliminate the consumption of the region based on the ecological service supply from a fair perspective. Firstly, the article makes an assessment on the basis of the supply behavior of the watershed ecological service providers and the ecological compensation standard of watershed, proposing that the watershed ecological compensation standard should be based on the ecological environment value, and compensating for the ecological spillover environmental value of ecological protection behavior. Secondly, taking Weihe watershed as an example, based on the theoretical analysis, the ecosystem service value supply from 2006 to 2015 in the Weihe upstream was calculated by using equivalent factor method, and the water footprint method was used to calculate and remove the ecosystem service value from 2006 to 2015, which the upper Weihe have consumed. Finally, the compensation standard that Weihe upstream should obtain, increased from 1.282 billion yuan in 2006 to 4.409 billion yuan in 2015; thus, showing an overall growth trend, indicating that the upstream has continuously made efforts to protect the watershed ecological environment, and continuously increasing the remaining ecological service value supply for the downstream.
  • DownLoad:The evaluation of the watershed ecological compensation standard of ecosystem service value: a case of Weihe watershed upstream.PDF
  • Research on the value of forest ecosystem services and compensation in a Pinus massoniana forest
  • Authors:WU Qiang, PENG Yuanying, MA Hengyun, ZHANG Heping and LIU Yiru
  • Abstract:The separation from forest compensation allocation and forest ecosystem services has been a long-term barrier for restricting proper functioning of forest ecological conservation. It is of great significance to establish an incentive and restrictive mechanism coupling the effects of forest conservation with allocation of forest compensation funds in order to improve the ecological compensation system and ensure national ecological security. In this study, we selected Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) forests as the research target and used field investigation and laboratory analysis to accurately evaluate the value of four main ecosystem services in the forests, namely carbon sequestration, water conservation, soil fertility conservation, and biodiversity protection. Based on a classic growth curve (Raymond Pearl), an ecological compensation algorithm was developed to determine the standard compensation value for ecosystem services in Masson pine forests. The results showed that, firstly, the total ecosystem services value of Masson pine forests ranged from 10335.86-16358.06 yuan hm-2 a-1, with the four services valued at 165.93-521.03; 5024.47-11788.30; 3597.84-6405.04; and 178.57-1346.15 yuan hm-2 a-1 for carbon sequestration, water conservation, soil fertility conservation, and biodiversity protection, respectively. Secondly, the spatial pattern of carbon sequestration and soil fertility conservation value decreased with increasing latitude; whereas, the water conservation and biodiversity protection value increased with latitude. The forest ecosystem services value was also affected by vegetation types and forest management practices, as it was higher in the mixed Masson pine stands compared to the pure Masson pine stands and was higher in the stands that had undergone thinning and replanting by silvicultural practices compared to the afforestation stands after clear cutting. Lastly, the forest ecosystem services standard compensation value in Masson pine forests ranged from 0.15-1.43×103 yuan hm-2 a-1 which was determined by the unit price of forest ecosystem services. This study provides a quantitative basis for measuring and evaluating forest ecosystem services and standard compensation value accurately.
  • DownLoad:Research on the value of forest ecosystem services and compensation in a Pinus massoniana forest.PDF
  • Evaluation of insect pollination and service value in China's agricultural ecosystems
  • Authors:OUYANG Fang, WANG Lina, YAN Zhuo, MEN Xingyuan and GE Feng
  • Abstract:Approximately 80 percent of all flowering plants require animals as pollinators. In this study, we systematically examined the structure and types of flowers, pollination process, media and methods, dependence of crops on insect pollination, concept of insect pollination function and service, and evaluation methods of insect pollination function and service value. The quantity of pollination function and the value of pollination service by insects in the agricultural ecosystem were evaluated. The results showed that food crops, fruits, vegetables, and commercial crops depend on insect pollination to some extent. Based on insect pollination dependence, crop yields, and crop prices in 2015, we found that quantity of pollination function for 22 types of major crops in China was 180 million tons. The value of pollination services was 886.05 billion RMB. The value of insect pollination services to major crops accounted for 1.3% of the GDP in 2015, which is of great economic value. At the provincial level, the quantity of pollination function and the value of pollination service for major cultivated crops in 2015 were ranked among the top five in Shandong, Henan, Hebei, Shaanxi, and Xinjiang, with the annual pollination service value exceeding 50 billion RMB. These results indicate that the main crops in these five provinces are highly dependent on insect pollination. Evaluating the pollination function is important for understanding the biological and ecological effects of insects on the biomass or yield of crops. Studies of the value of insect pollination service can reveal the economic effect or economic value of insect pollination. And it also help and support the decision maker or manager in determining whether to invest in the corresponding manpower, material resources, and financial resources to maintain or enhance the diversity and population quantity of pollinated insects for cultivated crops.
  • DownLoad:Evaluation of insect pollination and service value in China's agricultural ecosystems.PDF
  • Emergy analysis of the crop ecosystem services of Yanchi County in Ningxia
  • Authors:WANG Weiwei, ZHOU Lihua, SUN Yan and CHEN Yong
  • Abstract:The sustainable development of agriculture in the agro-pastoral ecotone has always been an important topic of regional agricultural research in China. In this paper, Yanchi County in Ningxia was taken as a typical case area of the agro-pastoral transitional zone in north China; a ecosystem services and dis-services of the crop ecosystem in Yanchi County from 1991 to 2016 were evaluated by using the framework of emergy analysis of an agricultural ecosystem, to try to reveal the effects of a grazing-prohibition policy on sustainable development of crops. The results showed that:(1) From 1991 to 2016, the emergy input, ecosystem services and dis-services of the cropping ecosystem in Yanchi County increased. After the implementation of the grazing-prohibition policy, the growth rate increased. The increase of emergy input in cropping was mainly due to the increase of purchased emergy input. (2) According to the Pearson correlation analysis, there was a significant positive correlation between the ecosystem services and anti-services at the 0.01 level (bilateral), and changes in agricultural ecosystem services and dis-services had the same trend. (3) The implementation of the grazing-prohibition policy promoted an improvement in the ecological environment, the increase in the purchased emergy input of the social economic system, and the increase in irrigated area, which can enhance the ability of the semi-arid northern agro-pastoral ecotone to withstand climate fluctuations. (4) The sustainability of crops in Yanchi County was higher than the national average and that of typical agricultural areas, and its sustainability showed a steady downward trend before the implementation of the grazing-prohibition policy, whereas an upward trend was observed after the implementation of this policy. The implementation of the grazing-prohibition policy has led to preliminary ecological and economic benefits for agricultural production.
  • DownLoad:Emergy analysis of the crop ecosystem services of Yanchi County in Ningxia.PDF
  • Economic value dynamics of carbon sequestration in forest vegetation of Sichuan Province
  • Authors:HU Junxi, HUANG Fang, TIE Liehua, LIU Xiong, WEI Shengzhao and HUANG Congde
  • Abstract:Correctly estimating the economic value for the sequestration of carbon in forest vegetation can provide basic data for the evaluation of eco-benefits in forest ecosystems. We used forest resource inventory data of Sichuan Province from 1997 and 2014 to estimate the economic value of forest carbon sequestration in Sichuan Province in two periods. The results show that from 1997 to 2014, the economic value of forest carbon sequestration in Sichuan Province increased from 70.317 billion yuan to 86.575 billion yuan. The net increase was 16.258 billion yuan and the average annual growth was 0.956 billion yuan, with an average annual growth rate of 1.36%. In 1997 and 2014, spruce fir forest had the largest economic value, which accounted for 54.82% and 46.62% of the total carbon sequestration economic value, respectively. This indicates that spruce fir forest plays an important role in the economic value of forest carbon sequestration in the province. The economic value of carbon sequestration in natural forests and planted forests in Sichuan Province showed an increasing trend, and the economic value in planted forests (7.42%) was significantly higher than that in natural forests (1.03%). The economic value of forest carbon sequestration in Sichuan Province generally increased with the increase of forest age groups. The results show that the implementation of forest protection and management measures, including natural forest protection projects, played an important role in improving the economic value of forest carbon sequestration.
  • DownLoad:Economic value dynamics of carbon sequestration in forest vegetation of Sichuan Province.PDF
  • Variations in nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations and major phytoplankton species in the northwestern Lake Taihu between 2003-2012
  • Authors:WANG Min, ZHANG Jianyun, CHEN Qiuwen, SHI Wenqing and SUN Qiugen
  • Abstract:Phytoplankton is one of the major primary producers in aquatic ecosystems, and plays a critical role in the normal functioning of aquatic ecosystems by providing material and energy. Changes in the aquatic ecological environment can affect phytoplankton abundance and community structure, leading to the occurrence of harmful algal blooms. In this study, the trends in temporal variation and seasonal characteristics of nutrient concentrations (including total nitrogen, ammonium, nitrate, and total phosphorus), phytoplankton abundance (including Cyanophyta, Chlorophyta, Bacillariophyta, etc.), as well as phytoplankton community structure were analyzed, using continuous monthly monitoring data of four sampling sites located in Zhushan Bay and West Coast of Lake Taihu between 2003 and 2012. Relationships between phytoplankton abundance and water temperature coupled with nitrogen and phosphorus were evaluated simultaneously. The results showed that the concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorous generally decreased during the ten years; this was particularly apparent for the concentrations of total nitrogen (from 7.30 mg/L to 4.25 mg/L) and ammonium (from 4.19 mg/L to 0.81 mg/L) at Zhushan Bay, and nitrate concentration (from 2.01 mg/L to 0.75 mg/L) at West Coast of Lake Taihu. In contrast, phytoplankton abundance generally increased, with the maximum annual phytoplankton abundance of 5293.2×104 cells/L and 3802.8×104 cells/L observed in 2012, at Zhushan Bay and West Coast of Lake Taihu, respectively. Cyanobacteria became the absolutely dominant species, constituting 90.4% and 87.5% of the total phytoplankton community in 2012 at Zhushan Bay and West Coast of Lake Taihu, respectively. Additionally, nitrogen concentrations were higher in spring and winter than in the other two seasons, whereas total phosphorous concentrations and phytoplankton abundance showed the opposite seasonal trends. Pearson's correlation analysis indicated that cyanobacterial abundance and its percentage in the total phytoplankton community were positively correlated with water temperature (r=0.474, P < 0.01), and negatively correlated with ammonium concentration (r=-0.432, P < 0.01) and TN/TP ratio (r=-0.450, P < 0.01). Under the effects of both temperature and nutrient structure, gradual cyanobacterial blooms occurred earlier but disappeared later, thus, leading to the increased duration of cyanobacterial blooms in Zhushan Bay and West Coast of Lake Taihu during 2003-2012. With the increased deleterious effects of global warming, more stringent nitrogen and phosphorus limiting thresholds are required to control cyanobacterial blooms in Lake Taihu. Furthermore, phosphorus remains the critical nutrient that must be controlled in the heavily polluted northwestern Lake Taihu.
  • DownLoad:Variations in nitrogen and phosphorous concentrations and major phytoplankton species in the northwestern Lake Taihu between 2003-2012.PDF
  • Spatial and temporal variation of the plankton community and its relationship with environmental factors in the city section of the Ba River
  • Authors:CHEN Hong, LIU Qing, PAN Jianxiong, WANG Song and WANG Zaizhao
  • Abstract:To evaluate the relationship between plankton community composition and environmental factors in a city section of the Ba River, the samples were collected and analyzed every two months from September 2016 to July 2017. In the study, 7 phyla and 63 genera of phytoplankton were identified, with the most abundant species of Chlorophyta (34.9%), followed by Bacillariophyta (30.2%). A total of 45 zooplankton species from 4 classes were identified, dominated by Rotifera (48.9%) and Protozoa (24.4%). The abundances of phytoplankton and zooplankton were 0.73×104 to 98.5×104 ind/L and 20 to 1084 ind/L, respectively. The spatial and temporal distribution of abundances of both phytoplankton and zooplankton showed a decreasing trends from the downstream to the upstream, with the peaks in summer. The water quality was comprehensively evaluated using plankton abundance, Shannon diversity index, Margalef abundance index, and physicochemical indexes including transparency, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total nitrogen, permanganate index, and heavy metal content. The results showed that the city section of the Ba River was moderately polluted and that the aquatic plants in the river bed of the upstream landscape river have the ability to remove the pollutants. Canonical correspondence analysis indicated that water temperature, total nitrogen, pH, dissolved oxygen,and mercury are the key factors in phytoplankton community distribution, and that water temperature, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chlorophyll-a, and mercury are the key factors in zooplankton community distribution.
  • DownLoad:Spatial and temporal variation of the plankton community and its relationship with environmental factors in the city section of the Ba River.PDF
  • Correlation of meiofauna abundance with chlorophyll a and organic matter of Dongzhai Harbor Mangrove
  • Authors:LIU Junling, YUAN Chao, HE Yonggu and WANG Yongqiang
  • Abstract:The meiofauna of Dongzhai Harbor Mangrove was investigated, and, chlorophyll a (Chla) and organic matter content of the sediments were determined, in April (spring), June (summer), and October (autumn) of 2015 and January (winter) of 2016.Furthermore, correlations between meiofauna abundance and Chla and organic matter were analyzed for different seasons. Results showed that the main meiofauna groups were Nematoda, Copepoda, Turbellaria, Polychaeta, and Oligocheata. Content of organic matter was 25.22%-93.41%, with an average value of 46.6%. Content of Chla was 0.188-6.303 μg/g, and the average content was 1.731 μg/g. Correlation analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation between abundance of meiofauna and Chla content in spring (Pearson's r=0.684; P < 0.05). The abundance of meiofauna was negatively correlated with organic matter content in summer (Pearson's r=-0.518; P < 0.05).
  • DownLoad:Correlation of meiofauna abundance with chlorophyll a and organic matter of Dongzhai Harbor Mangrove.PDF
  • Assessment of river habitat quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region
  • Authors:CHEN Miao, SU Xiaolei, HUANG Huimin, GAO Ting, DANG Chengqiang, DONG Rong, ZENG Bo and TAO Jianping
  • Abstract:After the completion of the Three Gorges Reservoir, tributaries of the reservoir habitat changed dramatically because of the greatly reduced flow of water and formation of a 30 m deep water-level fluctuation zone, so it is very necessary to evaluate reservoir river habitat quality. Based on the river habitat assessment index system, including 18 indicators that relate to river hydrology, river morphology, and riparian habitat, we evaluated the quality of the river habitat at 254 sampling points in the 36 important tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir area. The quality of the habitat scored within the range of "excellent" at 4.72 percent of the sampling sites and 30.31 percent received a score within the range of "very good." On the other hand, 49.61 percent received a score within the range of "average", while the remaining 15.35 percent received a score of "poor". There was no site within this catchment that received a score of "very poor". For the river habitat conditions, the riparian zone was the best out of the whole 254 sites, followed by the hydrological regime, and the river morphology was the worst. Overall, the habitat quality of tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir is due to the interaction between the natural environment and human interaction, and the riparian vegetation condition, riparian zone width, human disturbance, riverbed sediment conditions, and hydrological nature are the main driving factors.
  • DownLoad:Assessment of river habitat quality in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region.PDF
  • County forest ecological security evaluation and spatial econometric analysis in Jiangsu Province
  • Authors:LI Yan, WANG Ke, LIU Wei, LI Yankun, WANG Shijun and ZHANG Dahong
  • Abstract:The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of ecological location factors on forest ecological security, establish an evaluation index system and study the internal effect mechanism of its spatial correlation to evaluate and monitor forest ecological security.Based on 80 counties in Jiangsu Province forest panel data from 2000 to 2015 were analyzed in this study using the entropy, expert, and fuzzy matter element methods to calculate the forest ecological security index, which was adjusted according to the ecological location model obtained from the meteorological and terrain indexes.Moreover, the combined use of ArcGIS software, ESDA and CSDA models in the present study revealed that (1) population density, unit area energy consumption and proportion of reforestation area are the most important measures;(2) the area with the highest ecological location coefficient was mainly distributed in southern Jiangsu Province.Further,the area with the lowest ecological location coefficient was mainly distributed in the northeast;(3) the forest ecological security status in southern Jiangsu was better than that in northern and mideastern Jiangsu;(4) regarding forest cover change from 2000 to 2015, 65% of the ESI index of all counties in Jiangsu Province showed an obvious declining trend;(5) the overall spatial correlation of the forest ESI index in counties of the Jiangsu Province was significant,but the spatial aggregation in 2000-2015 decreased and Low-Low clustering was more significant(P ≤ 0.01);and (6) the diffusion and reflux effects between the forest ESI index in the counties of Jiangsu Province were concomitant.
  • DownLoad:County forest ecological security evaluation and spatial econometric analysis in Jiangsu Province.PDF
  • Improvement of the emergy ecological footprint model: A case study of Hainan Province
  • Authors:CAO Weiwei and SUN Caizhi
  • Abstract:In this study we analyzed the existing problems of previous emergy ecological footprint model in terms of emergy density, ecological carrying capacity, ecological index classification, and integration by comparing with the existing emergy ecological footprint models, and summarized the results. Then, we established a system for estimating ecological footprint taking into consideration the consumer's perspective and supply scenario, and developed a more effective solution to improve the emergy ecological footprint and ecological carrying capacity model. Based on the improved model, the change characteristics of Hainan's ecological economic system from 2000 to 2016 were analyzed empirically. The results showed that:(1) the footprint of energy and biological products have increased dramatically, whereas pollution and construction land footprint remain stable; (2) production carrying capacity has increased owing to technological improvement, and the environmental carrying capacity has decreased owing to increased human occupation intensity and environmental resource utilization; (3) the overall ecological environment of Hainan shows ecological surplus, but pollution and energy surplus has decreased, and energy began to appear as an ecological deficit in 2011. Through the construction of footprint accounts, it is possible to track changes of the emergy ecological footprint, ecological carrying capacity, and ecological surplus/deficit of various accounts and various land types more clearly. An enhanced emergy ecological footprint model could reflect the regional ecological economic system more objectively and provide the basis for development of regional environmental management and protection.
  • DownLoad:Improvement of the emergy ecological footprint model: A case study of Hainan Province.PDF
  • Prediction of the potential distribution and ecological suitability of Fritillaria walujewii
  • Authors:WEI Bo, MA Songmei, SONG Jia, HE Lingyun and LI Xiaochen
  • Abstract:Based on 62 natural distribution points and 15 environmental factors, we analyzed and predicted the potentially suitable areas, driving factors, and ecological niche parameters determining the distribution of Fritillaria walujewii under the reference climate of 1961-1990 and under the predicted climate of 2050 (2041-2060). We based our predictions on RCP2.6 and RCP6.0 scenarios using ArcGIS and the maximum entropy (MAXENT) model. The major results were as follows:(1) under the reference climate, the potentially suitable areas for F. walujewii were mainly restricted to the Altai region, western and southern Junggar Basin, southwestern Alashankou, southern Ili River Valley, and western Turpan Basin. Specifically, the most suitable areas were concentrated in southwestern Junggar Basin, Tacheng, and the middle and southern Ili River Valley; (2) the potential distribution of F. walujewii in 2050, based on two climate scenarios and compared with the reference climate, will possibly decrease by about 0.94% and 0.23%. The new potential habitats would mainly distributed in the western Junggar Basin. However, the most suitable distributions for F. walujewii are predicted to become slightly smaller (by about 0.42% and 0.39%) in the middle and southern Ili River Valley and Tacheng; (3) annual precipitation, precipitation in the driest month, mean temperature in the driest quarter, and altitude were the main limiting factors affecting distribution of F. walujewii; the total cumulative contribution of these factors was 88.58%. Ecological niche parameters that determine the most suitable areas under the reference climate were:an annual precipitation of 248-469 mm, precipitation in the driest month of 3-19 mm, mean temperature in the driest quarter of -22.7 to -2.0℃, and altitude of 1350-2100 m.
  • DownLoad:Prediction of the potential distribution and ecological suitability of Fritillaria walujewii.PDF
  • Impact of quantity of returned corn straw on the cropland ground arthropod community in a black soil area
  • Authors:LIU Pengfei, HONG Mei, MEI Li, ZHAO Bayinnamula, DE Haishan, BAI Xueyuan, LI Zhixin and MA Xi
  • Abstract:In order to understand the effects of returned corn straw on the cropland ground arthropod community in a black soil area, an experiment with five different amounts of corn straw returned to the field 0 (CK), 9000 (SR1), 10500 (SR2), 12000 (SR3) and 13500 (SR4) kg/hm2 was carried out in Zhalaid Banner of Inner Mongolia from June to September 2016. The results showed that 1820 ground arthropod individuals were captured and these were classified into 16 taxonomic groups. The number of individuals of ground arthropods was significantly increased in SR4 (P < 0.05), and the number of taxonomic groups was significantly increased in SR3 (P > 0.05). The number of individuals of ground arthropods was highest in August, and the number of taxonomic groups of ground arthropods was highest in July. The diversity and richness indexes were highest in SR4 (P < 0.05). The dominance index was highest in SR1 (P < 0.05). The evenness index was highest in CK (P < 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that ground arthropod individuals were not only positively correlated with soil organic matter (P < 0.01), but also with average infiltration rate (P < 0.05), and negatively correlated with soil bulk density (P < 0.05). Soil temperature was obviously correlated with the number of ground arthropod taxonomic groups (P < 0.05). The richness index was obviously correlated with average infiltration rate and soil moisture content (P < 0.05). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that ground arthropod individuals, the diversity index, and the taxa Grylloidea, Alticinae and Carabidae were most sensitive to the amount of straw returned, and could therefore be considered as evaluation indexes to judge the nutrient status after straw is returned in a black soil area in the future.
  • DownLoad:Impact of quantity of returned corn straw on the cropland ground arthropod community in a black soil area.PDF
  • Canopy-air temperature difference of winter wheat near-isogenic lines and its relationship with total water consumption by winter wheat grown under water deficit conditions
  • Authors:MEI Xurong, HUANG Guirong, YAN Changrong, LIU Xiaoying, ZHANG Xinying, WANG Yajing, GU Fengxue, GUO Rui and ZHONG Xiuli
  • Abstract:This study explored the key factors that lead to differences in water consumption among different populations with different genotypes, to evaluate genotype-specific water consumption traits and select ideal varieties with low water requirements. Fifteen near-isogenic lines (NILs), along with their donor parent Jing 411 and recurrent parent Jinmai 47, were used as materials in this experiment. The materials tested have significantly different water consumptions, but there are no significant differences in their yields under water deficit conditions. Automatic rain-shelter and rain-proof pools that can prevent water seepage were used for the simulated water deficit treatment. The soil water content of all the genotypes were monitored over the whole experimental period and the total water consumption was calculated using the water balance equation. Grain yield was measured after harvest and then the water use efficiency (WUE) was calculated. The canopy-air temperature difference (CTD), leaf transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance were also monitored at the jointing-booting, heading-flowering, and grain-filling stages. The results indicated that the 15 NILs, along with their parents, had significantly different CTDs during all three growth periods. Analysis of variance for the CTD differences indicated that genotype, and growth and development year significantly affected CTD, but there was an interaction between the two factors only at the heading-flowering stage (P=0.0002). There were significant differences in water consumption among the 15 NILs and their parents. However, there were no significant differences in yield. The differences in water assumption meant that there were significant differences in WUE among some genotypes. The CTDs at all three growth and development stages negatively correlated with water consumption. The R2 value was the highest at the heading-flowering stage, and was 0.7042 and 0.6095 during 2012-2013 and 2016-2017, respectively. The correlations between leaf transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance and water consumption were very weak among the 15 NILs and their parents. The correlations were not significant for any of the three growth and development stages. The results for the near-isogenic lines tentatively indicate that under water deficit conditions, the canopy structure traits, rather than leaf gas exchange properties such as leaf transpiration rate and stomatal conductance, significantly affect population-specific water consumption. The results also show that establishing a suitable population canopy structure increases yields and can control water consumption, which leads to an improvement in WUE.
  • DownLoad:Canopy-air temperature difference of winter wheat near-isogenic lines and its relationship with total water consumption by winter wheat grown under water deficit conditions.PDF
  • Leaf water content at different positions and its relationship with photosynthesis when consecutive drought treatments are applied to summer maize from the 3-leaf stage
  • Authors:WANG Fan, HE Qijin and ZHOU Guangsheng
  • Abstract:The accumulation of dry matter in plants depends on the canopy photosynthetic rate, which is closely related to single leaf photosynthetic capability. Leaf photosynthesis is also highly correlated with its water content. Compared to soil water content, leaf water content can directly reflect crop growth and development and might be the best index for showing the degree of water profit and loss. Leaf water content and photosynthesis at different positions have been investigated in a number of studies. However, there have been fewer reports on the change in leaf water content (LWC) at different positions and its relationship with photosynthesis under consecutive drought stress. In this study, six different watering treatments were designed to simulate the response of leaf characteristics at the different leaf positions of summer maize "Zhengdan 958" that had been subjected to persistent drought. The simulated experiment was conducted in Baoding City, Hebei Province, northern China. After analyzing the change in leaf water content (LWC) at different positions and its relationship with net photosynthesis, the results indicated that the change in leaf position in summer maize can influence the falling rate for leaf water during consecutive drought periods and the estimated maximum leaf water content. The falling rate for leaf water and the estimated maximum leaf water content in Leaf 1 were more than in Leaf 3 and Leaf 5. When leaf photosynthesis (Pn) fell to zero (the lowest leaf water content that can maintain net photosynthesis), the leaf water contents of Leaf 1, Leaf 3, and Leaf 5 increased as the leaf position increased. This indicated that the photosynthesis response to leaf water content was different at each position. The leaf water content of Leaf 1 had strong relationships with soil water content and photosynthesis. The minimum leaf water content that could maintain net photosynthesis in Leaf 1 was lower than all the other leaf positions, which meant Leaf l had better drought tolerance. This suggests that the use of Leaf 1 in drought monitoring could be developed further in the future. These results will contribute to the accurate simulation of canopy photosynthesis and to the development and monitoring of drought in summer maize.
  • DownLoad:Leaf water content at different positions and its relationship with photosynthesis when consecutive drought treatments are applied to summer maize from the 3-leaf stage.PDF
  • Dynamic changes of spatial pattern and structure of the Tamarix ramosissima population at the desert-oasis ecotone of the Tarim Basin
  • Authors:KANG Jiapeng, MA Yingying, MA Shuqin, XUE Zhengwei, YANG Lili, HAN Lu and LIU Weiyang
  • Abstract:Tamarix ramosissima is perennial shrub with strong resistance to drought, salinity, and wind. As one of the ecological keystone species of the Tarim Desert natural ecosystem, it plays a dominant role in maintaining the stabilized structure and function of the desert ecosystem and protecting the ecological safety of the oasis. To illuminate the ecological characteristics of a T. ramosissima population and to better understand the effects of biological and environmental factors on its population distribution, we studied the population structure, life table, survivorship curve, quantitative dynamics, and spatial distribution patterns of a T. ramosissima population at the desert-oasis ecotone of the Tarim Basin, Xinjiang, China. Ensuring the wise use, conservation, and preservation of the ecological bushwood in the Tarim Basin was the goal of this study. The age structure, life table, survivorship curve, and time sequence prediction of the T. ramosissima population were determined to analyze its population structure and dynamics. A simple community structure and a sparse species composition were found in the T. ramosissima at the desert-oasis ecotone of Tarim Basin. The age structure of the T. ramosissima population had a spindle-type shape with a low percentage of younger individuals, indicating that the population is likely to decline continuously. The number of surviving individuals and life expectancy of the T. ramosissima population monotonically decreased with increasing size class. The survivorship curve generally matched with Deevey Ⅱ type. Small size shrubs are always accompanied with higher mortality rates and hazard rates, while highness class structure indicated low shrubs had higher lost stable rate. Seedlings could not be regenerated in time. The number of large size shrubs increased significantly with community development, which accelerates the shrunk of population size. This species generally had a clumped distribution pattern. Nevertheless, this pattern gradually changed over time from a clumped to a random pattern as shrubs matured from young to middle-aged to old-growth shrubs. Spatial variations of different growth stages changed obviously with different scales. Small size shrubs and large size shrubs had random distributions at scales of 0-3 m, 0-13 m and 17-36 m, respectively. They showed aggregated distributions at other scales. Mid-sized shrubs had a random distribution at all scales, which was related to habitat heterogeneity, reproductive characteristics, intraspecific competition, and ecological adaptation. Results of the spatial association analysis showed that small size shrubs were significantly negatively associated (mutually exclusive) to mid-size shrubs at scales ≥ 9 m, to large size shrubs at scales of 7-47 m, which were not conducive to the growth and regeneration of small individuals, further to affect population stability. Correlation and stepwise regression analysis between environmental factors and abundance distribution showed that the soil water and nitrogen contents were the main factors that restricted the growth, distribution, and regeneration.
  • DownLoad:Dynamic changes of spatial pattern and structure of the Tamarix ramosissima population at the desert-oasis ecotone of the Tarim Basin.PDF
  • Quantitative classification of MRT, CCA ordination, and species diversity along elevation gradients of a natural secondary forest in the Qinling mountains
  • Authors:ZHONG Jiaojiao, CHEN Jie, CHEN Qian, JI Liuting and KANG Bing
  • Abstract:The quantitative analysis of species diversity, forest community classification, and ordination are the basis for secondary forest vegetation protection and restoration, and therefore, has fundamental theoretical significance. Forest community classification, ordination, and species diversity along elevation gradients can reveal the relationships between species distribution and environmental factors, and can provide an important basis for understanding the function of mountain ecosystems. Zhouzhi Nature Reserve is located in the middle of the North slope of the Qinling mountains. It is rich in species diversity, and the vegetation is representative and typical of the area. In this study, we collected data from five sites along the elevation gradient, and aimed to determine the relationships of different forest communities and the environment, and the variation of species diversity along the elevation gradient. The diversity was analyzed using the richness, Shannon-Wiener, and Pielou indexes to represent the diversity of forest vegetation communities at all levels; the forest community was classified using multiple regression trees (MRT), and ordination using canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Results were as follows:(1) There were 195 plant species belonging to 61 families and 128 genera in 25 plots; Gramineae and Compositae were the dominant families. The species diversity variation along the elevation gradient was similar, showing a significant unimodal distribution pattern, and as the elevation increased, it reached a maximum value of 1600-1800 m, then decreased. The forest community structure and vertical pattern of species diversity varied with the elevation gradient, revealing a significant biodiversity environment gradient variation relationship; (2) Through the MRT analysis, we found the forest community was divided into two categories by cross validation:1. Populus purdomii + Malus kansuensis + Duchesnea indica, 2. Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata + Cotinus coggygria + Rubia cordifolia; (3) The results of CCA clearly reflected the distribution range of various community types and better reflected relationships between species distribution and environmental factors. In addition, elevation, aspect, litter layer thickness, and disturbance were important factors that affected the distribution patterns of secondary forests in the region. The first axis of CCA was mainly related to elevation and litter layer thickness, and the second axis was mainly related to aspect. Classification focused on revealing the intermittent communities, but ordination focused on revealing community continuity. Therefore, their combination effectively described the community. The results of vertical variation patterns of species diversity along elevation gradients were helpful to reveal the characteristics of spatial distribution patterns and ecological adaptability of different species. However, the results of the MRT and CCA showed that the environmental factors investigated in this study contributed little to the quantitative classification and sequencing of communities. Therefore, in future studies, more environmental factors should be measured and more data should be extracted to provide a more comprehensive explanation of the relationship between community distribution and environmental factors.
  • DownLoad:Quantitative classification of MRT, CCA ordination, and species diversity along elevation gradients of a natural secondary forest in the Qinling mountains.PDF
  • Niche and interspecific association of dominant bryophytes on different substrates
  • Authors:LIU Yan, ZHENG Yueyue and AO Yanyan
  • Abstract:Bryophyte communities at altitudes of 800 m to 2400 m on both rocks and soil were investigated in Dabashan National Nature Reserve, Chongqing. Niche breadth and niche overlap of dominant bryophytes on the two substrates were calculated and analyzed, using vegetation type as the resource. Variance ratios (VR), χ2 tests, and association coefficients (AC) were used to analyze interspecific associations. The results showed that the highest importance values of dominant bryophytes on both rocks and soil occurred in deciduous broad-leaved forest. Niche breadth values of the 15 most-dominant bryophytes on rocks ranged from 0.574 to 1.783. Among these species, Thuidium cymbifolium had the highest niche breadth value. On the other hand, niche breadth values of the 10 most-dominant bryophytes on soil ranged from 0 to 1.361; that of Entodon concinnus was the highest. Niche overlap between dominant species on rocks and soil varied from 0.048 to 0.939 and from 0 to 0.998, respectively. The VR values were both less than 1 and the W values were outside the confidence intervals, which indicated that there were significantly negative correlations between dominant species on rocks and on soil and that the bryophyte communities were in the primary stage of succession. Interspecific associations of 37 bryophyte species pairs on rocks and 20 species pairs on soil reached significant levels. Niche breadths of the same species, and niche overlap and AC of the same species pairs on the two different substrates were different.
  • DownLoad:Niche and interspecific association of dominant bryophytes on different substrates.PDF
  • Diversity of endophytic bacteria in root nodules of Hippophae rhamnoides in the Maxian Mountains
  • Authors:ZHANG Aimei, HAN Xueying, WANG Jia, KONG Weibao, NIU Shiquan and ZHU Xuetai
  • Abstract:Root nodules of Hippophae rhamnoides were collected in the Maxian Mountains. The plate culture method and high-throughput sequencing were used to study the diversity of endophytic bacteria in the root nodules of Hippophae rhamnoides. Microbial composition, abundance, and diversity of the nodule endophytic bacteria were analyzed. The differences in the results of the two techniques were compared. The results showed that 24 phyla, 50 classes, 90 orders, 167 families, and 215 genera of nodule endophytic bacteria were detected by high-throughput sequencing, and 3 phyla, 5 classes, 7 orders, 8 families, and 8 genera were obtained by plate culture. The relative abundances of the dominant nodule endophytic bacteria revealed that the differences between the results of the two techniques were greater at lower classification levels, especially at the family and genus levels, than at higher levels. Both plate culture and high-throughput sequencing showed an abundant diversity of nodule endophytic bacteria. High-throughput sequencing provides a more comprehensive and accurate picture of microbial community structure than the plate culture method does. Plate culture can only detect a few dominant taxa of nodule endophytic bacteria. The results of this study indicated that plate culture greatly underestimates microbial community composition and overestimate their abundance.
  • DownLoad:Diversity of endophytic bacteria in root nodules of Hippophae rhamnoides in the Maxian Mountains.PDF
  • Health sequence analysis of a plant community in the sand-accumulation belt along the oasis fringe in Minqin, China
  • Authors:CHANG Zhaofeng, ZHU Shujuan, DUAN Xiaofeng, ZHAO Peng, ZHANG Jianhui and DING Aiqiang
  • Abstract:With desert control effort in more than 60 years in Hexi Corridor of Gansu Province, sand-accumulation belts have taken into form along the oasis fringe. Among which, the sand-accumulation belt at the fringe of Minqin oasis is relatively typical and complete. The vegetation on the sand-accumulation belts is the important factor not only for the formation, but also for the stability maintaining of the belts. To some sense, the healthy vegetation on the belts is decisive to the stability of the belts. To analyze the healthy status of the vegetation on the sand-accumulation belt, we designed 11 equal-interval sample lines on the belt along the fringe of Minqin oasis. Vegetation on more than 60 plots was investigated and the healthy sequence of plant communities was analyzed. The result showed that the vegetation on the sand-accumulation belt at the fringe of Minqin Oasis was generally unhealthy. However, the vegetation on the belt with artificial sand-fixation was healthier than that on the belt with natural shrub nebkhas, and the vegetation on the belt with mixed arbor and shrub is the least healthy. The dominant species on the sand-accumulation belt downstream Minqin Oasis, Tamarix laxa, was dead or seriously unhealthy. This means that the sand-accumulation belt is under potential risk of wind erosion and activation. As farmland has been abandoned, efforts should be made to protect the farmland windbreak and the sand-accumulation belts.
  • DownLoad:Health sequence analysis of a plant community in the sand-accumulation belt along the oasis fringe in Minqin, China.PDF
  • Species diversity and interspecific association of trees in the Yaoluoping Nation Nature Reserve
  • Authors:WANG Li, CHANG Jinli, ZHOU Shoubiao, WANG Xiaoying, ZHANG Jiaqi, YAN Shaokai, ZHANG Jinming, CHEN Xin, ZHAO Xin and WANG Zhi
  • Abstract:To study the mechanisms of succession and species coexistence in this forest type, a 11.56 hm2 forest plot in the Yaoluoping Nation Nature Reserve was established according to the CTFS technical standards. In this plot, all free-standing trees with DBH (diameter at breast height) ≥ 1 cm were mapped, tagged, and identified. Preliminary results on floristic characteristics, community composition, species diversity and interspecific associations were determined and discussed in this study. The results showed that:(1) There were 24910 individuals, which belonged to 103 species, 57 genera, and 35 families. The eight most dominant families were Rosales, Aceraceae, Aquifoliaceae, Lauraceae, Ericaceae, Betulaceae, Saxifragaceae, and Fagaceae. (2) In the sample plot, the species diversity was distributed evenly. The four most dominant species were Castanea seguinii, Carpinus turczaninowii, Symplocos paniculata, and Dendrobenthamia var. chinensis. The trees were distributed at all heights, but mainly between 2 m and 8 m. (3) The χ2 test showed there was a significant correlation among 32 species pairs of 105 species pairs. The analysis of the AC results revealed that among the 105 species pairs of the 15 dominant populations, 49.2% had significant positive correlations and 24.8% had significant negative correlations, and the association intensity was concentrated at relatively low levels, which indicated that the community structure was still in the growth stage.
  • DownLoad:Species diversity and interspecific association of trees in the Yaoluoping Nation Nature Reserve.PDF
  • Stochastic simulation of soil moisture dynamics at a point scale in a ridge-furrow rainwater harvesting system in a semiarid area
  • Authors:YIN Xinwei, WANG Qi, LI Xiaoling and WU Xue
  • Abstract:To determine the effects of soil moisture dynamics on hydrological and ecological processes in a ridge-furrow rainwater harvesting system in a semiarid area, a field experiment with a randomized complete block design was conducted, which evaluated the effects of different mulching materials (common plastic film, biodegradable mulch film and manually compacted soil) and different ridge-furrow ratios (30:60, 45:60 and 60:60 (cm:cm)) on soil moisture dynamics in the root zone of oats through model simulation and using the continuously monitored data of soil moisture during two consecutive oats growing years, 2012 and 2013, and daily precipitation from 2000 to 2015 at the Dingxi Arid Meteorology and Ecological Environment Experimental Station. The simulation was carried out using a stochastic model (Laio model) for soil moisture dynamics. The probabilistic density function (PDF) of soil moisture at a point scale was estimated using the Laio model, and the parameter sensitivity of the model was analyzed in this study. The results indicated that the precipitation distribution was irregular, and the precipitation events happening between May and October accounted for 66.6% of total annual precipitation events. Approximately 85.32% of annual rainfall received from rainfall higher than 10 mm. Annual precipitations had an increase trend in the past 16 years in this region. The threshold rainfall to produce runoff was 1.35, 0.95, and 5.31 mm for BMR (ridges mulched with biodegradable mulch film), CMR (ridges mulched with common plastic film), and SR (ridges with manually compacted soil), respectively, whereas the average runoff efficiency for the same treatments was 87.892%, 94.203%, and 27.488%. Soil water content for BMR and CMR was significantly higher than that for SR, which was significantly higher than that for traditional planting without ridges and furrows. The soil water content for all treatments followed a normal distribution. The curve characteristics (the curve peak value, position of the peak, 90% confidence interval) and the digital features (the expectations and variances) of the soil moisture PDF simulated by the model have a good consistence with observed values, and the consistency measure (CM) was higher than 0.5. The rainwater coupled with runoff in furrows could be considered a random event. The Laio model could be used for estimating the soil moisture PDF in ridge-furrow rainwater harvesting systems, and this could provide an insight for soil moisture management with a high use efficiency in semiarid regions.
  • DownLoad:Stochastic simulation of soil moisture dynamics at a point scale in a ridge-furrow rainwater harvesting system in a semiarid area.PDF
  • Effects of simulated trampling and rainfall on soil nutrients and enzyme activity in an alpine meadow
  • Authors:CHAI Jinlong, XU Changlin, ZHANG Degang, XIAO Hong, PAN Taotao and YU Xiaojun
  • Abstract:The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of yak and Tibetan sheep trampling on the grassland in Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. The effects of simulated trampling and rainfall on soil nutrients and enzyme activity in an alpine meadow were studied through two years of two-factor control experiments. The results showed that simulated trampling increased soil available nitrogen and available potassium but decreased soil total phosphorus and urease in the 0-20 cm soil layer, and decreased available phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase activity, and organic matter content in the 0-10 cm soil layer. Moderate trampling promoted the mineralization of soil total nitrogen. The soil nitrogen content in the 0-30 cm layer and total phosphorus content and urease activity in the 0-20 cm layer each showed a trend of a single peak curve with increased rainfall, reaching its peak at the average level of rainfall. Precipitation significantly reduced available nitrogen, available phosphorus, and available potassium in the 0-30 cm soil layer and total potassium in the 0-10 cm soil layer, but had no significant effect on soil organic matter content (P > 0.05). Under the same grazing intensity, the soil nutrients and enzyme activity of soil with Tibetan sheep were better than those with yak, but the difference was not significant (P > 0.05). Overall, livestock trampling promoted the mineralization of soil nitrogen and potassium, inhibited the accumulation of phosphorus, and accelerated the depletion of soil organic matter in the topsoil, while reducing soil urease and alkaline phosphatase activities. Moderate rainfall increased total nitrogen and total phosphorus contents and enzyme activity, while excessive rainfall had the opposite effect. Soil nutrient cycling and enzyme activity under the coupling of moderate trampling and precipitation were better than those of severe trampling and no trampling. As part of appropriate grazing and utilization of grassland, the influences of soil moisture and livestock species should be taken seriously. When grassland is under drought or soil water content is too high, the proportion of yak in grazing livestock should be reduced to increase the proportion of Tibetan sheep, so as to make the grassland achieve healthy and sustainable development.
  • DownLoad:Effects of simulated trampling and rainfall on soil nutrients and enzyme activity in an alpine meadow.PDF
  • Vertical distribution of soil organic carbon content and its influencing factors in Aaohan, Chifeng
  • Authors:LI Long, QIN Fucang, JIANG Lina and YAO Xueling
  • Abstract:In this study, a soil survey was carried out in Aohan County in Chifeng, Inner Mongolia. A generalized additive model (GAM) was used to analyze the spatial variability of the soil organic content (SOC) in soil depths of 0-100 cm. The results showed that SOC varied from 0.23 to 20.71 g/kg in 0-100 cm soil depths, and decreased gradually with increasing soil depths. The GAM fitted the relationship between SOC and environmental factors well. With increasing soil depth, SOC also varied. Vegetation was the dominant factor affecting SOC in surface soil; soil moisture was the dominant factor affecting SOC in deeper soil. The dominant factors that influenced the variation of soil organic carbon also showed considerable differences with increasing soil depth.
  • DownLoad:Vertical distribution of soil organic carbon content and its influencing factors in Aaohan, Chifeng.PDF
  • Soil carbon accumulation and carbon sinks under different afforestation patterns in Chinese subtropical forests
  • Authors:XU Yingming, YU Yina, LI Xin, LI Hao, HE Mingwei and LIN Sen
  • Abstract:Carbon sink forests can fix atmospheric carbon dioxide and they play an important role in mitigating global warming. Research on the accumulation of soil carbon in carbon sink forests grown using different afforestation models in the South Asian subtropical region will contribute to our understanding of carbon sequestration by carbon sink forests. A single-factor randomized block design was used to investigate carbon sinks and three afforestation models. These were new afforestation (I), closed mountain afforestation (Ⅱ), and replanting (Ⅲ). Soil carbon accumulation and carbon sink function were also investigated. The results showed that the soil total carbon content was significantly different before and after the five-year study period. The soil carbon content in the 0-20 cm soil layer varied significantly among the afforestation models (P < 0.05), and the largest variation range was -0.861±1.893 g C/kg to 3.021±1.577 g C/kg. The multiple comparisons of soil organic carbon content showed that the soil organic carbon content in the 0-20 cm layer for the afforestation model was significantly different (P < 0.05) from the other two models. In 2016, after nearly five years of carbon sinking and afforestation, there were significant differences in the soil organic carbon contents between the different afforestation models (P < 0.05), especially in the topsoil. The soil carbon stocks in the 0-60 cm soil layer ranged between -2.233±3.540 and 8.670 ±2.342 Mg C/hm2 for the different afforestation models and the difference in soil carbon stocks between new afforestation (I) and replanting (Ⅲ) was extremely significant (P < 0.01) after the carbon sink trees had been allowed to grow for 5 years. The soil carbon stocks also increased significantly. Between 2012 and 2016, the soil carbon sinks of the various afforestation models were ranked as follows:Ⅲ > Ⅱ > I, and the soils after closed mountain afforestation (Ⅱ) and replanting (Ⅲ) were significantly better carbon sinks than after model I. The afforestation model has significant effects on soil organic carbon accumulation and carbon sequestration in carbon sink forests. The main differences are caused by root decomposition, litter, and precipitation. The adoption of new afforestation models for the first five years does not improve soil organic carbon. Furthermore, accumulation and fixation do not improve organic carbon levels. Adopting a closed mountain afforestation model does improve soil organic carbon fixation, but does not increase the accumulation of organic carbon. However, the replanting model (Ⅲ) improves both soil carbon fixation and soil carbon accumulation.
  • DownLoad:Soil carbon accumulation and carbon sinks under different afforestation patterns in Chinese subtropical forests.PDF
  • Seasonal dynamics of soil microbial biomass in typical shelterbelts on the Bohai muddy coast
  • Authors:LIU Ping, QIU Yue, WANG Yutao, WEI Zhongping, FAN Jungang and CAO Baohui
  • Abstract:Soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen are the important indicators to study soil fertility, soil nutrient transformation and circulation, and environmental changes. During this research, the seasonal dynamics of soil microbial biomass C and N contents and their relation with the changes of soil nutrients content in Ulmus pumila forest[25 years old (UPM), 10 years old (UP)], Robinia pseudoacacia forest (RP), Fraxinus chinensis forest (FC), Populus popularis forest (PP), Pliaoningensis forest (PL), mixed forest of Pliaoningensis and R. pseudoacacia (PR) and CK (naturally occurring shrub-grassland) were investigated. The purpose of this study is to provide a scientific basis for selection of coastal shelterbelt tree species and forest management in this area. The results showed that soil microbial biomass increased significantly by afforestation. Among all the forest types, UPM has the highest soil microbial biomass C and N contents, which are 2.50 and 2.09 times than CK. The microbial biomass C and N contents in soil layer of 0-10 cm were larger than those in 10-30 cm soil layer, and the seasonal dynamic change of soil microbial biomass in two soil layers varied significant differently. In the 0-10 cm soil layer, the seasonal dynamics of soil microbial biomass C and N contents in the typical shelterbelts on Bohai muddy coast were higher in spring and autumn, and lower in summer, with a "V" shape trend. The change trend of soil microbial biomass C in the typical shelterbelt under 10-30 cm soil layer was consistent with that of 0-10 cm soil layer, which showed a lower in summer, and a higher in spring and autumn, also with a "V" shape trend. There are mainly three forms of microbial biomass N variation:"V", inverted "V", and straight line. In the 0-30 cm soil layer, the average contribution rates of soil microbial biomass C to soil organic carbon in UPM, RP, FC, PP, PR, UP, PL, and naturally occurring shrub-grassland were 1.59%, 1.68%, 1.42%, 1.54%, 2.29%, 1.80%, 2.02%, and 1.12%, respectively, and in the 0-30 cm soil layer, the contribution rates of soil microbial biomass N to soil total nitrogen were 1.85%, 1.30%, 1.08%, 1.35%, 2.49%, 1.57%, 2.08%, and 2.32%, respectively. The correlation of soil microbial biomass C and N in all forest types were significantly positive, and soil microbial biomass C and N had significantly positive correlation with soil total nitrogen and organic matter, and had significantly negative correlation with soil conductivity. In addition, soil microbial biomass C had significantly positive correlation with soil available P. From the results of seasonal dynamics of microbial biomass C and N in different soil layers, it could be drew the conclusion that microbial biomass increased by afforestation in muddy coastal soil, but ground water was rose in summer, accompanied by the increment of salt and alkali content, moreover, trees utilize large quantities of nutrients to maintain growth, thus, the soil microbial biomass was lower. Based on the comparison of soil microbial biomass C and N content and their contributions to soil N pools among all forest types, the conclusion can be made that UPM and PR are the most conducive tree species to the recovery of soil microbial function and nutrient fixation on the Bohai muddy coast.
  • DownLoad:Seasonal dynamics of soil microbial biomass in typical shelterbelts on the Bohai muddy coast.PDF
  • Relationships between plant community functional traits and soil quality based on land use changes in tropical region
  • Authors:WEN Zhi, ZHAO He, LIU Lei, WANG Lijuan, OUYANG Zhiyun, ZHENG Hua and LI Yanmin
  • Abstract:To reveal the effects of plant community functional trait changes, resulted from the land use conversion from primitive forest to secondary forest or plantations, on soil quality in tropical region, an investigation was conducted in five typical land use types in the central mountainous area of Hainan Island. The land use types include primitive forest (PF), secondary forest (SF), areca plantation (AP), pure rubber plantation(RP) and rubber intercropping Alpinia oxyphylla plantation (RAP).The changes of soil qualities after the natural forest conversion to secondary forest or plantations and the relationships between plant community functional traits (litter fall, canopy density, root length density, fine root density, and specific root length) and soil quality were analyzed. Compared with those of primitive forest, the litter fall, root length density, fine root density, total soil porosity, maximum water holding capacity, soil organic carbon, and total nitrogen of other land use types decreased significantly (P < 0.05), but soil bulk density increased significantly(P < 0.05). Soil alkaline hydrolysis of nitrogen in all plantations decreased obviously, whereas soil total phosphorus, soil total potassium, and slowly available potassium increased significantly(P < 0.05) during the conversion. With increasing of land use intensity, the soil quality decreased significantly(P < 0.05). The soil quality indexes of SF, AP, RP, and RAP decreased by 63.4%, 85.8%, 81.2% and 84.1%, respectively, compared with that of PF. However, there were no differences in soil quality among the plantations. The litter fall, canopy density, root length density, and fine root density had the positive and significantly correlations with the soil quality index(P < 0.05). Moreover, fine root density had the largest direct effect on soil quality, and litter had the largest indirect effect. Our results suggested that the transformation of tropical primitive forests to rubber and areca plantations significantly changed soil properties and soil quality, which was mainly explained by the plan community functional traits of fine root density and litter fall. Improving the management of litter fall and understory plant community, which influences fine root density, will help increase soil quality in plantations in tropical region.
  • DownLoad:Relationships between plant community functional traits and soil quality based on land use changes in tropical region.PDF
  • Tree-associated symbiotic microbes and underlying mechanisms of ecological interactions: a case study of poplar
  • Authors:YUAN Zhilin, PAN Xueyu and JIN Wei
  • Abstract:Populus has been increasingly recognized as an important model tree genus, not only due to its wide distribution around the world and an associated great economic and ecological significance, but also the availability of several poplar genomes. Apart from these advantages, Populus is also an ideal organism for investigating physiological and molecular mechanisms underlying tree-microbe interactions, as poplar trees are able to establish multiple symbiotic relationships with a variety of microorganisms thriving in both above-and belowground tissues. Representative poplar-associated beneficial microbes include ectomycorrhizal fungi, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, fungal endophytes, nitrogen-fixing bacteria, and plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), which generally improve poplar growth, nutrition acquisition, and different types of stress tolerance. Rapid progress has been made in understanding the molecular interactions in the development of ectomycorrhizae in the Laccaria bicolor-poplar system and the mechanisms underlying the ectomycorrhizal fungi-mediated poplar abiotic tolerance. Intriguingly, the ecological significance of mycorrhizal helper bacteria and endohyphal bacterial has been recently appreciated. More importantly, a plant microbiome research project was initiated recently; it extensively revolutionizes our understanding of the structure and functions of plant-associated microbiota. The rhizosphere, endosphere, and phyllosphere microbiomes of several poplar species have been uncovered, indicating that both host genotypes and environmental factors influence the microbial community composition. It has been widely accepted that the rhizosphere and endosphere often harbor distinctive microbiota. Promisingly, the strategy of rhizosphere microbiome engineering will shed light on the contributions that soil microbial communities make in improving tree fitness under stress conditions. Looking forward, it will provide a basis for generating robust microbial inoculants that can be utilized in planting seedlings.
  • DownLoad:Tree-associated symbiotic microbes and underlying mechanisms of ecological interactions: a case study of poplar.PDF

您是本站第 76628921 位访问者

Copyright © 2005-2019   京ICP备06018880号
地址:北京海淀区双清路18号
  邮编:100085    电话:010-62941099
  E-mail : shengtaixuebao@rcees.ac.cn
本系统由北京勤云科技发展有限公司提供技术支持