基于陆海统筹的九龙江-厦门湾海岸生态过渡带综合监测体系构建
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国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFC0502901);国家自然科学基金项目(41771500)


Constructing integrated monitoring system in Jiulong River-Xiamen Bay coastal complex ecotone based on land and sea coordination
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The National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFC0502901); The National Natural Science Foundation of China (41771500)

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    摘要:

    海岸带是陆地和海洋之间的生态过渡带,生态保护和开发利用矛盾突出。而生态与环境监测是海岸带环境污染治理与生态保护的重要基础,是海岸带可持续发展的关键。在分析目前海岸带监测存在的问题基础上,以九龙江-厦门湾为研究对象,通过遥感和生物监测、标准衔接、采样和分析仪器以及在线监测系统研发等技术集成,构建了从污染源、环境质量到生态系统以及景观层次的一体化综合生态监测体系。该体系基于常规监测,建立了基于生态系统的河流-河口(近海)生物、水体和沉积物的生态环境一体化监测;探索制定了适用于九龙江河口不同盐度区的营养盐基准/标准系列推荐值;基于营养盐污染入海总量控制目标,构建了河流入海污染物通量在线监测系统;通过遥感监测和实地调查相结合,实现了从关键生态系统到景观的海岸带综合生态监测。基于综合监测体系,构建了兼顾陆海的河口湾区域生态安全评价指标体系,实现区域生态系统可持续发展或生态安全的动态评价。因此,通过上述系统的集成,成功实现了从陆域(流域)到河口(近海)一体化综合生态监测,可为海岸带地区的生态质量改善、污染防治、主要污染物排放总量控制、生态安全评价、生态保护与修复等提供科学支撑。

    Abstract:

    Since coastal zone is the transitional ecotone between land and sea, where the contradiction between ecological protection economic development and resource utility is sharp, an ecological and environmental monitoring network is extremely important for local environmental pollution control and ecological protection, and it is also fundamental to sustainable development in coastal zones. Taking the Jiulong River and adjacent Xiamen Bay in southeast China as a demonstrative area for land and sea coordination and to overcome the inadequacy of the current conventional monitoring systems, this study established an integrated ecological monitoring network in the Jiulong River-Estuary continuum and nearshore areas for comprehensively monitoring both local environmental factors and ecological ecosystems based on the current conventional monitoring systems. This network was performed through combination of monitoring using remote sensing and biological techniques, bridging gaps of water quality standards between territorial and adjacent sea, comprehensive field samplings and invents of innovative measuring equipment, and setup of online observation system. The integrated monitoring network was capable of management and measurement from pollutant sources, environmental quality, crucial ecosystems, and landscape levels. This firstly constructed integrated-monitoring system component is ecosystem-based and incorporated organism, water, and sediments monitoring for this river-estuary-bay continuum. Secondly, a series of nutrient criteria/standard including dissolved inorganic nitrogen and soluble reactive phosphorus for the different estuarine salinity segments in the estuary were proposed. Thirdly, targeting at the objective of total pollutant discharge controlling between land and sea, an online pollutant fluxes monitoring system between the interfaces of the Jiulong River and its estuary were constructed. On the basis of combination of dynamic monitoring using remote sensing observations and field investigations, as the fourth step, an ecological monitoring system was also established. Then based on the above four monitoring systems and observed results, an ecological indicator system including parameters from coastal lands, estuarine and nearshore areas for rapid evaluating regionally ecological security was proposed. This indicator system was then applied to dynamically evaluate regionally ecological security and sustainable development for the Jiulong River and Xiamen Bay. Finally, the above several monitoring systems have been integrated and successfully applied in the areas across from territorial (watershed) to estuarine (nearshore) areas, and from management and measurement of pollutant sources, environmental quality, crucial ecosystems, and to landscape levels. Therefore, this integrated monitoring network would significantly facilitate environmental quality improvement, pollution control, total pollutant discharge control, ecological protection, ecological security evaluation, and restoration in coastal areas from the perspective of scientific support.

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王飞飞,钱灵颖,丁升,曹文志,陈能汪,周克夫.基于陆海统筹的九龙江-厦门湾海岸生态过渡带综合监测体系构建.生态学报,2021,41(11):4271~4277

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  • 收稿日期:2021-01-04
  • 最后修改日期:2021-04-05
  • 录用日期:2021-02-02
  • 在线发布日期: 2021-06-17
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